Tuesday, March 7, 2017

Chronology from 1945 to 1990s

1945
1945 – Karl Popper publishes The Open Society and Its Enemies

7 May 1945 – SHAEF headquarters in Rheims the Allies accepted Germany’s surrender

8 May 1945 – Victory in Europe Day

5 July 1945 – United Kingdom general election of 1945; some polls in some constituencies delayed until 12 July and in Nelson and Colne until 19 July, because of local wakes weeks

17 July–2 August 1945 – Potsdam Conference was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm Hohenzollern, in Potsdam, occupied Germany

26 July 1945 – United Kingdom general election results counted and declared on 26 July owing in part to the time it took to transport the votes of those serving overseas

26 July 1945 – Churchill resigns as British Prime Minister

26 July 1945–26 October 1951 – Clement Attlee as British Prime Minister

15 August 1945 – Emperor Hirohito issues a radio broadcast announcing the Surrender of Japan

17 August 1945 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) publishes Animal Farm: A Fairy Story in Britain; on 26 August 1946 in the US

2 September 1945 – The Japanese Instrument of Surrender is signed on the deck of the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay

2 September 1945 – formal end of WWII

5 September 1945 – Singapore is officially liberated by British and Indian troops

9 September 1945 – The Japanese troops in China formally surrender, end of the Second Sino-Japanese War

24 October 1945 – the United Nations officially comes into existence on the ratification of the UN Charter by the five permanent members of the Security Council (France, the Republic of China, the Soviet Union, the UK and the US) and a majority of the other 46 signatories

22 December 1945 – death of Otto Neurath in Britain

1946
January 1946 – Karl Popper arrives back in England from New Zealand

6 January 1946 – the first meeting of the UN General Assembly (with 51 nations present) and the Security Council takes place in London (the General Assembly selected New York City as the site for the headquarters of the United Nations; the facility was completed in 1952)

20 January 1946 – de Gaulle abruptly resigned

5 March 1946 – Churchill’s Iron Curtain speech at Westminster College in Fulton, Missouri

21 April 1946 – John Maynard Keynes dies at his home Tilton in Firle, Sussex

4 June 1946–21 September 1955 – Juan Perón is President of Argentina

22 July 1946 – release date of the film Beware of Pity, starring Lilli Palmer, Albert Lieven and Cedric Hardwicke

13 August 1946 – death of H. G. Wells

20 December 1946 – release date of Frank Capra’s film It’s a Wonderful Life

1947
1947–1953 – Karl Polanyi teaches at Columbia University as Professor of Economics in New York; he retired in 1953

1947 – Eric Hobsbawm appointed as Lecturer in History at Birkbeck College, London

26 May 1947 – release date of the film Black Narcissus, starring Deborah Kerr

18 July 1947 – the Indian Independence Act 1947 is given royal assent; the act partitioned British India into India and Pakistan

15 August 1947 – India partitioned British India into India and Pakistan

September–November 1947 – the 1947 Jammu massacres in the Jammu region of the state of Jammu and Kashmir in India

October 1947 – the House on Un-American Activities Committee holds nine days of hearings in Los Angeles about communists in Hollywood

22 October 1947–1 January 1949 – Indo-Pakistani War of 1947–1948, sometimes known as the First Kashmir War, was fought between India and Pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948

1948
30 January 1948 – assassination of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi

30 June 1948 – UK release date of film Oliver Twist, starring Alec Guinness

22 November 1948 – release of the British anthology film Quartet, adapted from W. Somerset Maugham stories

1949
1949 – Ludwig Lachmann appointed to a chair in Economics and Economic History at the University of Wittwatersrand in South Africa

1949 – Paul M. Sweezy publishes Karl Marx and the Close of His System and Böhm-Bawerk’s Criticism of Marx (August M. Kelley, New York)

1949 – Ronald Syme elected as Camden Professor of Ancient History at Oxford; he retired in 1970

May 1949 – the first issue of Paul M. Sweezy and Leo Huberman’s Monthly Review

June 1949 – George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair) publishes Nineteen Eighty-Four

October 1949 – Kim Philby arrives in Washington as British intelligence liaison to the US intelligence agencies

c. October 1949 – Nicholas Kaldor appointed as a fellow and lecturer of King’s College, Cambridge

October 1949 – Theodor W. Adorno left America and returns to Germany, where he teaches at Frankfurt University

1950s
1950
8 January 1950 – death of Joseph Schumpeter

21 January 1950 – death of George Orwell (Eric Arthur Blair)

23 February 1950 – British general election gave Labour a massively reduced majority of five

February 1950 – Friedrich Hayek submits a letter of resignation to the London School of Economics (LSE); Hayek teaches at the University of Chicago (from 1950–1962)

25 June 1950–27 July 1953 – Korean War

1 August 1950 – release of the British anthology film Trio, based on three short stories by W. Somerset Maugham

September 1950 – The Authoritarian Personality is published, by Theodor W. Adorno, Else Frenkel-Brunswik, Daniel Levinson, and Nevitt Sanford, who were working at the University of California, Berkeley

October 1950 – China invades Tibet

16 October 1950 – C. S. Lewis publishes The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe (the novel is set in 1940)

1951
25 May 1951 – Guy Burgess and Donald Maclean flee from Britain to Russia

July 1951 – Kim Philby resigns from MI6

27 August 1951–21 November 1951 – the 1951 British Mount Everest reconnaissance expedition led by Eric Shipton reconnoitres possible routes for climbing Mount Everest from Nepal; the best one found was through the Khumbu Icefall, Western Cwm and South Col; Edmund Hillary is part of the expedition

15 October 1951 – C. S. Lewis publishes Prince Caspian, second volume of the The Chronicles of Narnia

25 October 1951 – United Kingdom general election. The results:
Party | Leader | Seats Won
Labour | Clement Attlee | 295
Conservative | Winston Churchill | 302
National Liberal | James Stuart | 19
Liberal | Clement Davies | 6.
The Conservatives won.

26 October 1951 – Winston Churchill as British Prime Minister (26 October 1951–6 April 1955)

November 1951 – the Himalayan expedition of Eric Shipton (with Michael Ward, Bill Murray, and Tom Bourdillon), while scouting for a new route to Everest, discover so-called “yeti” tracks in the snow near the head of Menlung Glacier

14 November 1951 – release of the British anthology film Encore, an adaptation of three short stories by W. Somerset Maugham

1952
1952 – John Cairncross resigns from the government

6 February 1952 – death of George VI; accession of Elizabeth II

August 1952 – C. S. Lewis first meets Joy Davidman Gresham

18 September 1952 – Charlie Chaplin boards the RMS Queen Elizabeth with his family but the next day has his re-entry revoked

1953
1953 – Noam Chomsky and his wife Carol Doris Schatz visit England, France, Switzerland and Italy, and 6 weeks at a kibbutz in Israel

January 1953 – Charlie Chaplin and his family move to Manoir de Ban, overlooking Lake Geneva in Corsier-sur-Vevey, Switzerland

20 January 1953–20 January 1961 – Dwight D. Eisenhower is President of the United States

5 March 1953 – death of Stalin

29 May 1953 – Edmund Hillary and Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer Tenzing Norgay became the first climbers to reach the summit of Mount Everest

2 June 1953 – coronation of Queen Elizabeth II as monarch of the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, the Union of South Africa, Pakistan, and Ceylon

18 June 1953 – the Egyptian Republic was declared

27 July 1953 – end of the Korean War

15–19 August 1953 – the 1953 Iranian coup d’état, the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of the shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, with help from the United Kingdom and the United States

14 September 1953–14 October 1964 – Nikita Khrushchev is First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

1954
January 1954 – Daily Mail Snowman Expedition leaves Katmandu

7 June 1954 – death of Alan Turing

18–27 June 1954 – the 1954 Guatemalan coup d’état, a covert operation CIA to depose the democratically-elected Guatemalan President Jacobo Árbenz; it installs the military dictatorship of Carlos Castillo Armas

29 July 1954 – J. R. R. Tolkien publishes The Fellowship of the Ring, the first volume of The Lord of the Rings

11 November 1954 – J. R. R. Tolkien publishes The Two Towers, the second volume of The Lord of the Rings

1955
6 April 1955 – Winston Churchill steps down as British Prime Minister

6 April 1955–10 January 1957 – Anthony Eden (Conservative) is Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

June 1955 – Bertrand Russell leases Plas Penrhyn in Penrhyndeudraeth, Merionethshire, Wales; from 5 July 1956 this is his principal home

October 1955 – Kim Philby officially cleared by Foreign Secretary Harold Macmillan

20 October 1955 – J. R. R. Tolkien publishes The Return of the King, the third volume of The Lord of the Rings

1956
25 February 1956 – Nikita Khrushchev gives a secret speech denouncing Stalin at the 20th Soviet Party Congress

23 April 1956 – Helen Joy Davidman marries C. S. Lewis in a civil marriage at the register office, 42 St Giles’, Oxford

13 June 1956 – British forces complete their withdrawal from the occupied Suez Canal Zone

19 July 1956 – the US State Department rejects American financial assistance for the Egyptian High Dam

26 July 1956 – Nasser nationalised the Suez Canal

5 October 1956 – release date of the film The Ten Commandments, directed by Cecil B. DeMille and starring Charlton Heston and Yul Brynner

29 October 1956–7 November 1956 – the Suez Crisis (Tripartite Aggression), the invasion of Egypt by Israel, followed by the United Kingdom and France

1957
1957 – Noam Chomsky is promoted to the position of associate professor at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

1957 – Ayn Rand publishes Atlas Shrugged

10 January 1957–19 October 1963 – Harold Macmillan (Conservative) is Prime Minister of the United Kingdom

February 1957 – publication of Syntactic Structures by Noam Chomsky, which introduces the idea of transformational generative grammar

2 May 1957 – release date of the film The Curse of Frankenstein, directed by Terence Fisher, and starring Peter Cushing and Christopher Lee

26 August 1957 – release date of the film The Abominable Snowman, starring Peter Cushing and Forrest Tucker

1958
February–June 1958 – the Slick-Johnson Snowman Expedition, led by Gerald Russell and Peter and Bryan Byrne

20 February 1958 – Italian release date of the film Le fatiche di Ercole (The Labours of Hercules or Hercules), starring Steve Reeves; US release date 22 July 1959

27 March 1958–14 October 1964 – Nikita Khrushchev is Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union

8 May 1958 – release date of the film UK Dracula, directed by Terence Fisher and starring Christopher Lee and Peter Cushing

1 June 1958 – de Gaulle became Premier and was given emergency powers for six months by the National Assembly, fulfilling his desire for parliamentary legitimacy

1 June 1958–8 January 1959 – de Gaulle Prime Minister of France

17 September 1958–25 November 1959 – serialisation of Georges Prosper Remi’s (or Hergé) story Tintin in Tibet in Tintin magazine

28 September 1958 – a French referendum took place and 79.2 percent of those who voted supported the new constitution and the creation of the Fifth Republic

1959
8 January 1959–28 April 1969 – de Gaulle President of the French Republic

18 November 1959 – release date of the film Ben-Hur, directed by William Wyler and starring Charlton Heston

December 1959 – Slick-Johnson Snowman Expedition, with Peter Byrne

1960
February 1960 – Friedrich Hayek publishes The Constitution of Liberty

27 May 1960 – Piero Sraffa publishes The Production of Commodities by Means of Commodities; Italian publication on 6 June 1960

13 July 1960 – death of Helen Joy Davidman

September 1960–June 1961 – the World Book Encyclopedia scientific expedition to the Himalayas, led by Sir Edmund Hillary and Marlin Perkins, to study adaptation to high altitude and to search for the yeti

5 October 1960 – South African republic referendum; 52.29% of voters endorse withdrawal from the British Commonwealth and the establishment of a Republic of South Africa

1960s
1961
8 January 1961 – referendum on self-determination for Algeria was held in France

20 January 1961 – John F. Kennedy inaugurated as US president (in office 20 January 1961–22 November 1963)

31 May 1961 – establishment of the republic of South Africa

1962
1 June 1962 – Friedrich Hayek leaves New York for Naples (arriving on 13 June)

c. 15 June 1962–July 1968 – Friedrich Hayek is professor at the University of Freiburg, Germany

3 July 1962 – France recognised Algerian independence

October 1962 – Cuban missile crisis

5 October 1962 – release date of the James Bond film Dr. No in the United Kingdom

10 December 1962 – release date of the film Lawrence of Arabia, directed by David Lean and starring Peter O’Toole

1963
January 1963 – Gore Vidal and Austen leave for Italy; they take an apartment on Via Giulia in Rome

23 January 1963 – Kim Philby vanishes from Beirut

June 1963 – John F. Kennedy visits Ireland

1 July 1963 – Kim Philby’s flight to Moscow officially confirmed

11 October 1963 – release date of the James Bond film From Russia with Love in the United Kingdom

22 November 1963 – the assassination of John F. Kennedy in Dallas, Texas, at 12:30 pm Central Standard Time on Friday; Lyndon B. Johnson sworn in as President on Air Force One in Dallas on 22 November 1963

22 November 1963 – death of C. S. Lewis

23 November 1963 – broadcast date of the first Doctor Who TV program An Unearthly Child in the UK

25 November 1963 – a Requiem Mass held for John F. Kennedy at the Cathedral of St. Matthew the Apostle

21 December 1963–1 February 1964 – broadcast dates of the Doctor Who TV program The Daleks in the UK

1964
23 April 1964 – Anthony Blunt secretly confessed to MI5 about his spying

18 September 1964 – release date of the James Bond film Goldfinger in the United Kingdom

14 October 1964 – Nikita Khrushchev is forced to resign as Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union

14 October 1964–10 November 1982 – Leonid Brezhnev is General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Brezhnev becomes Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union on 16 June 1977

1965
24 January 1965 – death of Winston Churchill

23 August 1965 – release date of the film Dr. Who and the Daleks, starring Peter Cushing

22 September 1965 – the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 (or the Hart–Celler Act) is passed in the US Senate (25 August 1965 in the House); effective from 30 June 1968

21 December 1965 – release date of the James Bond film Thunderball in the United States; released in the UK on 29 December 1965

1966
1966 – Gore Vidal and Austen take the Via di Torre Argentina, Rome, Italy (their residence in Rome until 1993 when he lives year round in La Rondinaia)

1966 – Paul A. Baran and Paul M. Sweezy publish Monopoly Capital: An Essay on the American Economic and Social Order (Monthly Review Press)

5 August 1966 – release date of the film Daleks – Invasion Earth: 2150 A.D., starring Peter Cushing

1967
5–10 June 1967 – the Six-Day War

8 June 1967 – the USS Liberty incident, during the Six-Day War (5–10 June 1967)

1 July 1967–7 August 1970 – the War of Attrition between Israel and Egypt, Jordan, the PLO and their allies from 1967 to 1970

October 1967–February 1970 – the US experiences a spike in inflation owing to bidding up of wages with low unemployment

1968
31 January 1968 – the Viet Cong launch the Tet Offensive

4 April 1968 – murder of Martin Luther King

April 1968 – UK Race Relations Bill

20 April 1968 – Enoch Powell’s notorious address to the General Meeting of the West Midlands Area Conservative Political Centre, which became known as the “Rivers of Blood” speech

30 May 1968 – President Charles de Gaulle disbands the French parliament

6 June 1968 – death of Randolph Spencer-Churchill (1911–1968), son of Winston

6 June 1968 – death of Robert F. Kennedy after being shot in the Ambassador Hotel in Los Angeles, California by Sirhan Bishara Sirhan

5 November 1968 – the United States presidential election of 1968. Richard Nixon and Spiro Agnew (Republican) defeat Vice President Hubert Humphrey (Democratic). The results:
Candidate | Electoral Votes
Richard Nixon | 301
Hubert Humphrey | 191
George Wallace | 46.
1969
20 January 1969 – Richard Nixon inaugurated as US president. Nixon’s cabinet appointments:
Vice President
20 January 1969–10 October 1973 – Spiro Agnew
6 December 1973–9 August 1974 – Gerald Ford
White House Chief of Staff
20 January 1969–30 April 1973 – Harry R. Haldeman
4 May 1973–21 September 1974 – Alexander Haig
21 September 1974–20 November 1975 – Donald Rumsfeld
20 November 1975–20 January 1977 – Dick Cheney
White House Domestic Affairs Advisor
4 November 1969–30 April 1973 – John Ehrlichman
1 May 1973–8 January 1974 – Melvin Laird
White House Adviser and Speechwriter
Patrick Buchanan
White House Counsel
20 January 1969–4 November 1969 – John Ehrlichman
6 November 1969–9 July 1970 – Charles Colson
9 July 1970–30 April 1973 – John Dean
30 April 1973–9 August 1974 – Leonard Garment
National Security Advisor
20 January 20 1969–3 November 1975 – Henry Kissinger
3 November 1975–20 January 1977 – Brent Scowcroft
US Secretary of State
22 January 1969–3 September 1973 – William P. Rogers
22 September 1973–20 January 1977 – Henry Kissinger
US Secretary of the Treasury
22 January 1969–11 February 1971 – David M. Kennedy
11 February 1971–12 June 1972 – John Connally
12 June 1972–8 May 1974 – George P. Shultz
9 May 1974–20 January 1977 – William E. Simon
Secretary of Defense
22 January 1969–29 January 1973 – Melvin Laird
30 January 1973–24 May 1973 – Elliot Richardson
2 July 1973–19 November 1975 – James R. Schlesinger
20 November 1975–20 January 1977 – Donald Rumsfeld
US Attorney General
21 January 1969–1 March 1972 – John N. Mitchell
12 June 1972–30 April 1973 – Richard Kleindienst
25 May 1973–20 October 1973 – Elliot Richardson (resigned)
4 January 1974–2 February 1975 – William B. Saxbe
2 February 1975–20 January 1977 – Edward H. Levi
Chair of the Federal Reserve
2 April 1951–1 February 1970 – William M. Martin
1 February 1970–31 January 1978 – Arthur F. Burns
Director of Central Intelligence
30 June 1966–2 February 1973 – Richard Helms
2 February 1973–2 July 1973 – James R. Schlesinger
2 July 1973–4 September 1973 – Vernon A. Walters (acting)
4 September 1973–30 January 1976 – William Colby
30 January 1976–20 January 1977 – George H. W. Bush
Director of FBI
1 July 1935–2 May 1972 – J. Edgar Hoover
3 May 1972–27 April 1973 – L. Patrick Gray
30 April 1973–9 July 1973 – William Ruckelshaus
9 July 1973–15 February 1978 – Clarence M. Kelley
20 January 1969–9 August 1974 – Richard Nixon is US president

23 February–2 March 1969 – Richard Nixon’s state visit to Europe:
23–24 February 1969 – Brussels, Belgium to the 23rd meeting of North Atlantic Council
24–26 February 1969 – informal visit to London, United Kingdom
26–27 February 1969 – West Berlin and Bonn, West Germany; address to the Bundestag
27–28 February 1969 – Rome, Italy
28 February–2 March 1969 – Paris, France; meeting with President Charles de Gaulle
2 March 1969 – Vatican City; audience with Pope Paul VI.
19 April 1969–21 June 1969 – UK broadcast date of “The War Games,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Patrick Troughton

28 April 1969 – President Charles de Gaulle resigns the presidency at noon

20 July 1969 – 20:18 UTC, Neil Armstrong and pilot Buzz Aldrin land the lunar module Eagle on the moon at the Sea of Tranquility, as part of the United States Apollo 11 first manned mission to land on the Moon

26 July–3 August 1969 – Richard Nixon’s state visits to Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, South Vietnam, India, Pakistan, Romania, and the UK:
26–27 July 1969 – visit to Manila, Philippines to meet with President Ferdinand Marcos
27–28 July 1969 – visit to Jakarta, Indonesia, to meet with President Suharto
28–30 July 1969 – visit to Bangkok, Thailand
30 July 1969 – visit to Saigon, South Vietnam to meet with President Nguyen Van Thieu
31 July–1 August 1969 – visit to New Delhi, India
1–2 August 1969 – visit to Lahore, Pakistan
2–3 August 1969 – Richard Nixon visits Bucharest, Romania, to meet with President Nicolae Ceaușescu
3 August 1969 – Richard Nixon meets Prime Minister Harold Wilson in Britain
8 September 1969 – Richard Nixon visits Mexico for the dedication of Amistad Dam with President Gustavo Díaz Ordaz

December 1969–1977 – Friedrich Hayek is professor at the University of Salzburg

1970
3 January 1970 – UK broadcast date of “Spearhead from Space,” the first serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

2 February 1970 – death of Bertrand Russell in Penrhyndeudraeth, Wales

15 March 1970 – the first operational Soviet SAM site in Egypt completed

9 May 1970–20 June 1970 – UK broadcast date of “Inferno,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

18 June 1970 – the United Kingdom general election of 1970. The Conservatives under Edward Heath won:
Party | Candidate | Seats
Conservative | Edward Heath | 330
Labour | Harold Wilson | 288
Liberal | Jeremy Thorpe | 6
SNP | William Wolfe | 1.
19 June 1970–4 March 1974 – Edward Heath is British Prime Minister. Prime Ministers:
Labour
16 October 1964–19 June 1970 – Harold Wilson
Conservative
19 June 1970–4 March 1974 – Edward Heath
Labour
4 March 1974 – 5 April 1976 – Harold Wilson
5 April 1976 – 4 May 1979 – James Callaghan
Conservative
4 May 1979–28 November 1990 – Margaret Thatcher.
August 1970 – Senator Ted Kennedy introduces a bipartisan bill for universal national health insurance

7 August 1970 – a cease-fire agreement between Israel and Egypt; Egypt begins to move SAM batteries into the zone

1971
1971 – Gore Vidal buys the “La Rondinaia” (“Swallow’s Nest”), a villa in Ravello on the Amalfi coast, Italy, built by Lord Grimthorpe

10 April–15 May 1971 – UK broadcast date of “Colony in Space,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

22 May–19 June 1971 – UK broadcast date of “The Daemons,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

13 August 1971 – Richard Nixon ends Bretton Woods by suspending the convertibility of the dollar into gold; he freezes wages and prices for 90 days to combat inflation and imposes an import surcharge of 10 percent

1972
1 January–22 January 1972 – UK broadcast date of “Day of the Daleks,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

21–28 February 1972 – US President Richard Nixon’s 1972 visit to China

June 1972–December 1974 – spike in US inflation from (1) an explosion in commodity prices from 1972; (2) wage–price spirals, and (3) the first oil shock

17 June 1972 – Virgilio González, Bernard Barker, James McCord, Eugenio Martínez, and Frank Sturgis arrested at the Watergate Complex in the DNC office

June 1972–January 1973 – secret meetings between Bob Woodward and “Deep Throat” (W. Mark Felt, deputy director of the FBI) take place at an underground parking garage in Rosslyn

23 June 1972 – Nixon orders that administration officials should make Richard Helms (Director of the CIA) and Vernon A. Walters (Deputy Director) request that L. Patrick Gray (Acting Director of the FBI) end the FBI’s investigation into the Watergate break-in on the grounds of national security; the tape of this is latter known as the “smoking gun” tape

21–23 August 1972 – the 1972 US Republican National Convention, held at the Miami Beach Convention Center in Miami Beach, Florida

7 November 1972 – the United States presidential election of 1972, between Republican incumbent President Richard Nixon and Senator George McGovern of South Dakota (Democrat). The results:
Candidate | Electoral Votes
Richard Nixon | 520
George McGovern | 17.
30 December 1972–20 January 1973 – UK broadcast date of “The Three Doctors,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

1973
1 January 1973 – the UK enters the European Communities (EC) (or “Common Market”)

7 April–12 May 1973 – broadcast date of “Planet of the Daleks,” a serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who starring Jon Pertwee

30 April 1973 – Nixon fires John Ehrlichman and John Dean; H. R. Haldeman resigns

6–25 October 1973 – the Yom Kippur War, between a coalition of Arab states led by Egypt and Syria against Israel; fighting mostly takes place in the Sinai and the Golan Heights (territories occupied by Israel since the Six-Day War of 1967)

October 1973–March 1974 – first oil shock: Middle Eastern producers of oil institute an embargo on oil exports

10 October 1973 – Vice President Agnew resigns amid allegations of bribery, tax evasion and money laundering from his time as governor of Maryland

20 October 1973 – the Saturday Night Massacre: Richard Nixon fires independent special prosecutor Archibald Cox and resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus

1974
4 May 1974–8 June 1974 – broadcast date of “Planet of the Spiders,” the final serial of British science fiction television series Doctor Who with Jon Pertwee

9 May 1974 – the US House Judiciary Committee opens impeachment hearings against the President Nixon, televised on the major networks

1 July 1974 – death of Juan Perón

24 July 1974 – the US Supreme Court rules unanimously that the full White House tapes must be released

5 August 1974 – Nixon’s “smoking gun” White House tape is made public

9 August 1974 – the resignation of Richard Nixon as US president, after an address to the nation on television the previous evening

8 September 1974 – Gerald Ford’s presidential pardon of Richard Nixon

1975
5 June 1975 – United Kingdom European Communities referendum of 1975, a referendum held on support for UK membership of the European Communities (EC) (or “Common Market”); it had entered on 1 January 1973 under Edward Heath

1976
2 November 1976 – the United States presidential election of 1976 between Jimmy Carter with Walter Mondale and President Gerald Ford with Bob Dole (the U.S. Senator from Kansas). The results:
Candidate | Electoral vote
Jimmy Carter | 297
Gerald Ford | 240.
1977
25 May 1977 – US release date of the film Star Wars directed by George Lucas

1978
2 January 1978–21 December 1981 – broadcast dates of Blake’s 7, a BBC British science fiction television series

2 January–27 March 1978 – broadcast dates of Series 1 of Blake’s 7, a BBC British science fiction television series

1979
9 January–3 April 1979 – broadcast dates of Series 2 of Blake’s 7, a BBC British science fiction television series

1980
7 January–31 March 1980 – broadcast dates of Series 3 of Blake’s 7, a BBC British science fiction television series

4 November 1980 – the United States presidential election of 1980 between the Democratic incumbent President Jimmy Carter (with Vice President Walter Mondale from Minnesota) and the Republican Ronald Reagan (former Governor from California) with George H. W. Bush. The results:
Candidate | Electoral vote
Ronald Reagan | 489
Jimmy Carter | 49.
1981
20 January 1981 – inauguration of Ronald Reagan as US president

20 January 1981–20 January 1989 – Ronald Reagan is US president

1981
1981 – Stephen Jay Gould publishes The Mismeasure of Man

28 September–21 December 1981 – broadcast dates of Series 4 of Blake’s 7, a BBC British science fiction television series

1985
spring 1985 – David Horowitz publishes an article for The Washington Post Magazine entitled “Lefties for Reagan”

1986
1986 – David Horowitz publishes “Why I Am No Longer a Leftist” in The Village Voice

1988
6 September 1988–16 February 1993 – broadcast date of Count Duckula, a British animated television series created by British studio Cosgrove Hall Films

1989
4 September 1989 – death of Ronald Syme from cancer after collapsing in his room in August in Wolfson College, Oxford

Monday, March 6, 2017

Chronology of 1,000 BC to 476 AD

1,000 BC
1,000–750 BC – The Dark Age in Greece

c. 1000 BC – proto-Thracians in the Balkans from which Dacians and Thracians develop

c. 950–900 BC – migration of Arameans and Suteans into Babylonia; in the late 10th or early 9th century BC the Chaldeans followed

965–925 BC – traditional date of Solomon, king of the ancient Israelites

911–612 BC – the Neo-Assyrian Empire:
Kings of Assyria
911–891 BC – Adad-nirari II
891–884 BC – Tukulti-Ninurta II
883–859 BC – Ashurnasirpal II
859–824 BC – Shalmaneser III
824–811 BC – Shamshi-Adad V
811– 808 BC – Shammurāmat (or Sammuramat), regent
811–783 BC – Adad-nirari III
783–773 BC – Shalmaneser IV
772–755 BC – Ashur-dan III
755–745 BC – Ashur-nirari V
745–727 BC – Tiglath-Pileser III
727–722 BC – Shalmaneser V
722–705 BC – Sargon II
705–681 BC – Sennacherib
681–669 BC – Esarhaddon
668–c. 627 BC – Ashurbanipal
c. 631–c. 627 BC – Ashur-etil-ilani
626 BC – Sin-shumu-lishir
c. 627 – 612 BC – Sinsharishkun
612–c. 609 BC – Ashur-uballit II (ruled from the city of Harran)
900 BC

c. 900–700 BC – time of the Villanovan culture proper (Villanovan II), which developed to Etruscan culture

c. 900–800 BC – Scythians (Eastern Iranian speakers) migrate into southern Russia

860–590 BC – the era of the kingdom of Urartu (or Kingdom of Ararat or Van), an Iron Age kingdom situated on Lake Van in the Armenian Highlands. See map

859–824 BC – reign of Shalmaneser III

850 BC – the Assyrian king Shalmaneser III conquers Babylon and makes it king subject to Assyria

811– 808 BC – Shammurāmat (or Sammuramat) is regent of Assyria for her son Adad-nirari III; she becomes the legendary queen Semiramis in Greek myth

800 BC

c. 800 BC – possible migration of Tyrsenian-speakers from north-west Anatolia to Lemnos (with the Lemnian language)

800–500 BC – Tyrsenian culture on Lemnos

c. 800–c. 500 BC – Hallstatt culture in Western and Central Europe, within which was the Proto-Celtic homeland

c. 800 BC – Iranian speakers who became the Medes and Persians migrate into Iran?

776 BC – traditional date of the first Olympic Games

760–656 BC – the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty of Egypt (or the Nubian Dynasty or the Kushite Empire), the last dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt

760–740 BC – time of Eumelus of Corinth, a semi-legendary early Greek poet, who supposedly wrote the Titanomachy, Corinthiaca, Europia (Bougonia), and Return from Troy

750–650 BC – time of Hesiod, author of Works and Days, Theogony, and Shield of Heracles

750–480 BC – the Archaic Period in Greece

750–700 BC – Homeric poems the Iliad and Odyssey written down

747–721 BC – rule of Piye, the Kushite king and founder of the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty of Egypt who ruled from Napata in Nubia

743–724 BC – the First Messenian War between Messenia and Sparta

738 BC – Tiglath-Pileser III occupies Philistia and invaded Israel

732 BC – Assyria takes the Aramean state of Damascus, deporting many of its inhabitants

c. 728 – the Kushite Nubian ruler Piye invades Upper and Lower Egypt

727 BC – Babylonia becomes independent of Assyria

722 BC – Shalmaneser V dies during the siege of Samaria; Sargon II takes Samaria, ending the northern Kingdom of Israel and deporting 27,000 people into captivity

716–678 BC – rule of Gyges, founder of the Mermnad dynasty of Lydian kings

c. 714 BC – the Cimmerians (from the Pontic steppe) attacked Urartu

c. 710–650 BC – the Lelantine War, the war between Chalcis and Eretria in Euboea over the control of the fertile Lelantine Plain on the island of Euboea; many other city states join in

705 BC – the Cimmerians defeated by Assyrian forces under Sargon II; the Cimmerians conquered Phrygia in 696/5

700 BC

c. 700 BC – dating of Hesiod’s Works and Days and Theogony

687 BC – office of archon is established in Athens

685–668 BC – the Second Messenian War between Messenia and Sparta, after a helot slave rebellion

679 BC – Cimmerians and Scythians cross the Taurus Mountains and attack Assyrian colonies in Cilicia

677 BC – Esarhaddon sacks Sidon

673 BC – Esarhaddon raids Egypt

671 BC – Assyrian invasion of Egypt by Esarhaddon; Esarhaddon drives Pharaoh Taharqa back to Nubia

664–610 BC – rule of Psamtik I (Psammeticus), the first of Saite or Twenty-Sixth Dynasty of Egypt

663 BC – Assyrian invasion of Egypt; sack of Thebes

652 BC – the Cimmerians sacked Sardis, the capital of Lydia

645–560 BC – Sparta fights wars with Tegea

632 BC – the Athenian aristocrat Cylon invades Attica from Megara

626–539 BC – Neo-Babylonian empire

c. 619 BC – the Cimmerians are defeated by Alyattes of Lydia

612 BC – alliance of Medes, Babylonians and Susianians conquer the Assyrian capital Nineveh

610–595 BC – the reign of Necho II, a Pharaoh of the 26th Dynasty

609 BC – battle of Carchemish

c. 609 BC – Necho II (610–595) constructs a canal from the Nile to the Red Sea; he also founds Tell el-Maskhuta

c. 605–c. 562 BC – reign of Nebuchadnezzar II, king of the Neo-Babylonian Empire

600 BC

590–580 BC – the reforms of Solon (c. 638–c.558 BC) in ancient Athens

559–530 BC – reign of Cyrus the Great

546–528/27 BC – the tyrant Peisistratos controlled Athens

539 BC – Babylon conquered by Cyrus the Great

528/27 BC–514 BC – rule of the tyrant Hipparchus (528/27 BC–514 BC) and Hippias (528/27 BC–511/10 BC) in Athens

514 BC – assassination of the Athenain tyrant Hipparchus

511/10 BC – the tyrant Hippias from Athens expelled by the Spartans

507–501 BC – Cleisthenes takes power and reforms Athenian democracy

500 BC

480–322 BC – the Greek Classical Period

480–479 BC – the Persian invasion of Greece

480 BC – lions (the Panthera leo europaea) common in Greece; by 300 BC they were dying out and were extinct by c. 100 BC

478 BC – the Delian League founded as an alliance of Greek states

460–445 – First Peloponnesian War between Athens and Sparta:
460 BC – the battle of Oenoe

457 BC – Athenians defeated at Tanagra

457 BC – the battle of Oenophyta and defeat of Aegina

c. 451 – five year truce

449–448 BC – Second Sacred War

447 BC – the revolt of Boeotia from Athens and Athenian defeat at Coronea

446–445 BC – conflict ends with the Thirty Years’ Peace
431–404 BC – the Peloponnesian War in Greece

431–404 BC – the Peloponnesian War in ancient Greece:
431–421 BC – the Archidamian war; Sparta invaded Attica and Athens uses naval power to attack Sparta; ended with the Peace of Nicias (421 BC)

421 BC – Peace of Nicias

421–413 – the middle phase of the Peloponnesian War

415–413 BC – the Sicilian Expedition by Athens to Sicily

413–404 – the Decelean War (or Ionian War); Sparta incites revolts within Athens’ empire

405 BC – the Athenian fleet defeated at battle of Aegospotami
404 BC – the Thirty Tyrants in Athens

404–371 BC – the Spartan hegemony in Greece; ended by the Battle of Leuctra (371 BC)

400 BC
396–395 BC – the king of Sparta Agesilaus II invades Asia Minor

395–387 BC – the Corinthian War; the city states of Argos, Thebes, Corinth and Athens fight Sparta

387/386 – King’s Peace, peace settlement in Greece

379/378 – expulsion of the Spartan garrison from Thebes

378–355 BC – the Second Athenian League in Greece

371 BC – the Greek city state Thebes defeats Sparta at the battle of Leuctra

371–362 BC – the Theban hegemony in Greece; ended by the Battle of Mantinea (362 BC)

370–369 BC – Thebes liberates Messenia

362 BC – Athens and other Greek cities defeat Thebes in the battle of Mantinea

357–355 BC – the Social War in Greece, a rebellion against Athens by its allies in the Second Athenian League

359–336 BC – reign of Philip II of Macedon

356–346 BC – Third Sacred War; the city of Delphi seized by the Phocians

348 BC – Philip II captures Olynthos

346 BC – the Peace of Philocrates ends the Sacred war and conflict between Athens and Macedonia

338 BC – the Macedonian king Philip II defeats the Greeks at the Battle of Chaeronea

336 BC – the assassination of Philip II

336–323 BC – the reign of Alexander the Great

April/May–October 324 – Leosthenes supervises transport of mercenaries from Asia

320s
323
11 June 323 – death of Alexander the Great

c. June 323–July 320 – Perdiccas as regent

June 323 – Athenian boule orders Leosthenes to enrol mercenaries

late July 323 – beginning of the Lamian War

July 323–322 BC – Lamian War

autumn 323 – beginning of the siege of Lamia

November 323–February 322 – siege of Antipater in Lamia

winter 323/322 – death of Leosthenes

322
winter/spring – death of Leonnatus when attempting to raise the siege in Lamia

spring 322 – Peithon defeats veterans

May/June 322 – Athenian fleet defeated by Cleitus at Amorgos

July 322 – Perdiccas in Cappadocia

July/August 322 – battle of Crannon

November 322 – death of Demosthenes

322/321 BC – democracy overthrown at Athens by Antipater
Athenian Political History
322/321 BC – democracy overthrown at Athens by Antipater
321–319/318 BC – regime of Phocion
319/318 BC – democratic revolution at Athens
spring 318 BC – democratic revolution at Athens and the overthrow of Phocion
May 318 – death of Phocion
spring 318–July 317 – restored democracy at Athens
July 317–307 BC – rule of the tyrant Demetrius of Phalerum at Athens
August 307 BC – Demetrius Poliorcetes captures Athens; Demetrius of Phalerum flees from Athens; nominal democracy restored
307–c. 300 – democracy at Athens
c. 300–295 – rule of the tyrant Lachares in Athens
summer 295 – Athens surrenders to Demetrius the Besieger
287–260 – Athenian democracy restored
260 – Antigonus Gonatas captures Athens and abolished democracy.
321
spring 321 – arrival of Nicaea and Cleopatra in Asia; marriage of Perdiccas and Nicaea

summer 321 – marriage of Adea and Philip III

310s
320
spring 320 – beginning of the First Diadoch War

spring–c. July 320 – the First Diadoch War

May/June 320 – Eumenes defeats Neoptolemus and Craterus

c. July 320 – murder of Perdiccas in Egypt (spring or summer 320)

summer 320 – intervention by Antipater

August/September 320 – Triparadisus conference where Antipater becomes regent

14 November 320 – Seleucus enters Babylon

winter 320 – Eumenes in Celaenae for the winter; Alcetas defeats Asander

319
winter 319 – Antipater returns to Europe

spring 319 – Eumenes defeated by Antigonus and retreats to Nora

July 319 – Antigonus defeats Alcetas

summer 319 – death of Antipater; death of Demades; Polyperchon is regent

319/318 BC – democratic revolution at Athens; Cassander flees to Antigonus in Asia

318
spring 318 BC – democratic revolution at Athens and the overthrow of Phocion

spring 318 – Second Diadoch War; Ptolemy occupies Phoenicia and Syria

May 318 – death of Phocion; Cassander in the Piraeus

summer 318 – Eumenes in Cilicia; revolt of Peithon

autumn 318 – Antigonus defeats Polyperchon; Eumenes in Phoenica

winter 318 – Eumenes released from Nora

317
317–316 BC – production of the Dyskolos at the Lenaea

spring 317 – Cassander is regent; Eumenes in Susa

summer 317 – Cassander invades Macedonia

July 317 – Cassander (the king of Macedonia 305–297 BC) appoints Demetrius of Phalerum as ruler of Athens

July 317–307 BC – rule of the tyrant Demetrius of Phalerum at Athens

September 317 – Eumenes leaves Phoenicia for the East

between October–December 317 – murder of king Philip III Arrhidaeus and Eurydice

316
winter 316 – death of Olympias (High); Antigonus defeats Eumenes (High)

spring 316 – Eumenes takes control of armies of Upper Satrapies

May 316 – Eumenes arrives in Susa

late spring – Cassander invades Macedonia successfully; siege of Pydna begins

summer 316 – Seleucus’ flight to Egypt (High)

July 316 – battle of Coprates betwen Eumenes and Antigonus

August 316 – Antigonus in Media

October/November 316 – battle of Paraetacene

October 316–September 315 – Cassander rebuilds Thebes

December 316 – battle of Gabene

315
January 315 – death of Eumenes

spring 315 – murder of Olympias by Cassander after siege of Pydna ends (Low Chronology)

spring 315–December 311 – Third Diadoch War (High)

spring 315 – Cassander founds Thessalonica

c. summer 315 – Cassander restores Thebes; Cassander invades the Peloponnesus

summer 315 – Seleucus’ flight to Egypt from Babylon

July 315 – Cassander at the Nemean games

summer 315 – Antigonus declares the freedom of Greece (High)

autumn 315 – Ptolemy seizes Cyprus

314
November 314 – fall of Tyre (High)

spring 314–winter 311 – Third Diadoch War (Low)

spring 314 – Third Diadoch War begins; Antigonus in Syria

summer 314 – proclamation of Tyre: Antigonus declares himself regent and declares the freedom of Greece (Low); Antigonus in Phoenicia; capture of Joppa and Gaza; siege of Tyre

winter 314–313 – Antigonus winters at Tyre

313
summer 313 – siege of Tyre ends

312

autumn 312 – battle of Gaza; Ptolemy in Greece

311
22 February 311 – Ptolemy controls Phoenicia and Palestine

May 311 – Babylonian war; Seleucus in Babylonia

13 May–1 June 311 – Seleucus arrives in Babylon

May–summer 311 – Ptolemy’s invasion of Syria

c. summer 311 – Nicanor (satrap of Media) and Euagoras (satrap of Aria) march on Babylon, but are defeated near the Tigris

autumn 311–310 – Seleucus takes Ecbatana, Susa, Elam, and Media

September 311 – Seleucus conquest of Media and Elam

winter 311 – peace treaty that ends Third Diadoch War

300–310
310
spring 310 – Demetrius attacks Babylon unsucessfully

August 310 – Antigonus arrives in Babylon

309
March 309 – Antigonus leaves Babylon

spring 309 – Ptolemy conquers Cyprus

summer 309 – Antigonus attacks the countryside around Babylon

30/31 August 309 – Antigonus returns to Syria after losing a battle with Seleucus

August 309 – Ptolemy in Greece

autumn 309 – Antigonus in Syria

308
winter 308 – Ptolemy leaves Greece

spring 308 – Seleucus’ eastern expedition begins

307
spring 307–summer 301 – Fourth Diadoch War

June 307 – Seleucus in Bactria; liberation of Athens

307–300 – restored democracy at Athens

306
spring 306 – battle of Salamis

summer 306 – Antigonus the One-Eyed becomes king

305
spring 305 – Demetrius Poliorcetes begins the siege of Rhodes

spring 305–spring 304 – Demetrius Poliorcetes’ siege of Rhodes

304
304 BC – Polyperchon still alive

spring 304 – Demetrius Poliorcetes attacks Athens

spring 304–winter 302/301 – Demetrius Poliorcetes’ campaigns in Greece

summer–autumn 304 – Seleucus’ India war

summer 304 – armistice at Rhodes; Seleucus in India

autumn 304 – Demetrius the Besieger in Greece

302
spring 302–spring 301 – Fourth Diadoch War

summer 302 – Lysimachus invades Asia

summer–autumn 302 – Demetrius Poliorcetes’ campaign in Thessaly

winter 301 – armistice; Ptolemy in Syria

summer 301 – battle of Ipsus

autumn 301 – Lysimachus occupies Phrygia; Ptolemy occupies Phoenicia

300 BC
c. 300–295 – rule of the tyrant Lachares in Athens

290s
297 – death of Cassander

c. spring 295–spring 294 – Demetrius Poliorcetes’ blockade of Athens

spring 294 – Demetrius Poliorcetes conquers Athens after a blockade

autumn 294 – Demetrius the Besieger proclaimed king of Macedonia

294–287 – rule of Demetrius the Besieger as king of Macedon

289 – Demetrius the Besieger defeats Pyrrhus

280s
287–260 – Athenian democracy restored

summer 287 – Lysimachus and Pyrrhus divide Macedonia

283 – death of Demetrius the Besieger

January 282 – death of Ptolemy I

February 281 – battle of Corupedion; Lysimachus killed at the battle of Corupedium

September 281 BC – Seleucus I Nicator is assassinated in the Thracian Chersonese by by Ptolemy Keraunos near Lysimachia

September 281–261 BC – sole rule of the Seleucid king Antiochus I Soter
278 BC – Gauls invade Anatolia
275 BC – Antiochus I defeats Gauls using Indian war elephants
274–271 BC – First Syrian War
27 March 268 BC – Antiochus I lays the foundation for the Ezida Temple in Borsippa
278 BC – Gauls invade Anatolia

275 BC – Antiochus I defeats Gauls using Indian war elephants

274–271 BC – First Syrian War

27 March 268 BC – Antiochus I lays the foundation for the Ezida Temple in Borsippa

260 – Antigonus Gonatas captures Athens and abolished democracy

260–253 BC – Second Syrian War

246–241 BC – Third Syrian War

219–217 BC – Fourth Syrian War

300 BC–AD 300 – the Iron Age Yayoi period in Japan

250 BC–400 AD – Roman Warm Period or the Roman climatic optimum

1 AD

500 AD – Slavic-speaking people rapidly expand from a homeland in eastern Poland and western Ukraine

950–1250 AD – Medieval Warm Period.
Bronze Age
c. 3,300–1,200 BC – Bronze Age in Near East
c. 3,200–600 BC – Bronze Age in Europe
c. 3000–1200 BC – Bronze Age in South Asia

Iron Age
1,200 BC–500 BC – Iron Age in Ancient Near East
1,200 BC–1 BC – Iron Age in Europe
1,200 BC–200 BC – Iron Age in India
600 BC–200 BC – Iron Age in China
BIBLIOGRAPHY