Monday, September 11, 2017

Chronology of 1850–1900

1850
1850 – Marx had an affair with Helene “Lenchen” Demuth (1820–1890) and an illegitimate son Frederick Demuth was born in 1851.

8 May–2 December 1850 – Marx lived at 64 Dean Street, Soho

June 1850 – Marx acquired an admission card to the library of the British Museum

1850–1856 – Marx lived at 28 Dean Street, Soho

c. November 1850 – Engels moves to Manchester to serve as a clerk in his father’s business Ermen and Engels

16 December 1850 – first ships of settlers arrived in Canterbury, New Zealand

1850s
1851
April 1851 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1 May–11 October 1851 – Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations or The Great Exhibition, in the Crystal Palace in Hyde Park, London

23 June 1851 – Marx’s illegitimate child Henry Frederick was born

October 1851–July 1853 – William Stanley Jevons at University College, London; he leaves without degree

November 1851 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1852
26 May–26 June 1852 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1852 – Marx published The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon, an analysis of the French revolution of 1848 and the rise of the emperor Louis Napoleon III

30 June 1852 – New Zealand Constitution Act 1852, which grants self-government to the Colony of New Zealand

October–November 1852 – the Cologne communist trial saw a number of the members of the Communist league connected with Marx and Willich jailed as seditious revolutionaries, and Marx agreed to the dissolution of the league

20 December 1852 – Lower Burma was formally annexed by the British empire

1853
2 February 1853 – Edward Gibbon Wakefield arrives in Christchurch; after a month goes to Wellington

1 August 1853 – Francis Galton marries Louisa Jane Butler (1822–1897)

October 1853–30 March 1856 – Crimean war

1853–1862 – Marx turned to journalism in papers in England, the US, Prussia, Austria and South Africa, but mostly in the New York Tribune

30 April–May 1853 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1854
1854 – Marx befriended by David Urquhart (1805–1877)

1854–1862 – Alfred Russel Wallace travels through the Malay Archipelago or East Indies

2 May 1854–1858 – Samuel Butler at St John, Cambridge

24 May 1854 – 1st New Zealand Parliament was opened

29 June 1854 – William Stanley Jevons sails from Britain to Sydney, Australia

September 1854 – Richard Francis Burton first meets John Hanning Speke in Aden

6 October 1854–March 1859 – William Stanley Jevons in Australia as assayer to the new mint; Hunter River (May 1865); Wollongong (April 1857); Melbourne (March 1859)

29 October 1854–9 February 1855 – Richard Francis Burton makes an expedition to Harar (in present-day Ethiopia)

1855
2 March 1855–13 March 1881 – reign of Alexander II of Russia

April 1855 – Marx’s son Edgar died

16 April–May 1855 – Marx and his wife visit Engels in Manchester

15 May–15 November 1855 – the Exposition Universelle of 1855, held in the Palais de l’Industrie, the Champs-Élysées in Paris

June–30 September 1855 – Richard Francis Burton rejoins the army and travels to the Crimea to fight in the Crimean War

September–c.November 1855 – Marx and his wife visit Engels in Manchester

15 September 1855 – Edward Gibbon Wakefield retired from the Hutt seat and leaves political life

1856
1856–1863 – pea plant experiments conducted by Gregor Johann Mendel (20 July 1822–6 January 1884) on the rules of heredity at the Augustinian St Thomas’s Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia

29 September 1856–April 1864 – Marx family lives at 9 Grafton Terrace, Haverstock Hill, Kentish Town
8 May–2 December 1850 – Marx family lives at 64 Dean Street, Soho
December 1850–September 1856 – Marx family lives at 28 Dean Street, Soho
29 September 1856–April 1864 – Marx family lives at 9 Grafton Terrace, Haverstock Hill, Kentish Town
March 1864–March 1875 – Marx family lives at 1 Modena Villas (now 1 Maitland Park) in North London
March 1875–14 March 1883 – Marx lives at 41 Maitland Park Road (44 Maitland Street) until he died
1856–1859 – the Second Opium War

6 May 1856 – birth of Sigmund Freud

c. July 1856 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1857
1857 – Francis Galton and his wife move to 42 Rutland Gate, where he lives until his death in 1911

27 June 1857–February 1859 – John Hanning Speke and Richard Francis Burton set out from Zanzibar and discover Lake Tanganyika February 1858) and Lake Victoria, the source of the Nile

1857 – UK recession

1857–1858 – Marx writes Grundrisse der Kritik der Politischen Ökonomie (Outlines of the Critique of Political Economy), which were not even published until 1939

May 1857–June 1858 – Indian mutiny

2 May 1857 – the Reading Room extension of the British Library officially opened; from 8–16 May, the library was opened for a special public viewing

1858
31 January 1858 – launch of the SS Great Eastern at the Isle of Dogs, designed by Isambard Kingdom Brunel

1 May–c. late May 1858 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

1 July 1858 – papers by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace on natural selection are read to the Linnean Society of London

2 August 1858 – Government of India Act 1858, the company was formally dissolved and its ruling powers over India were transferred to the British Crown

27 October 1858 – Theodore Roosevelt born at East 20th Street in New York City, New York

autumn 1858–spring 1859 – Samuel Butler moves to Heddon Street, London, to work as an assistant to Reverend Philip Perring

1859
March–September 1859 – William Stanley Jevons returns to Britain via Peru, Panama, Havana, and the United States

June 1859 – Marx published A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy

c.June–July 1859 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels and Dundee to see Peter Imandt and Heise

9 June 1859 – emergence of the British Liberal Party. British Prime Ministers:
Liberal
12 June 1859–18 October 1865 – Henry John Temple (3rd Viscount Palmerston)
29 October 1865–28 June 1866 – John Russell, 1st Earl Russell
Conservative
28 June 1866–25 February 1868 – Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby
27 February 1868–1 December 1868 – Benjamin Disraeli is British Minister
Liberal
3 December 1868–17 February 1874 – William Ewart Gladstone is British Minister
30 September 1859 – Samuel Butler leaves England for New Zealand on board the Roman Emperor at Gravesend

October 1859–October 1860 – William Stanley Jevons returns to University College, London, to finish his BA degree

24 November 1859 – Origin of Species published

1860
1860 – Marx became anathema to the German émigré community in London when Karl Vogt accused Marx of being a police informer and having sold out his political allies

c. January 1860 – Julius von Haast moves to Canterbury; he becomes the provincial geologist at Canterbury from 1861 to 1868

27 January 1860 – Samuel Butler arrives in Lyttleton, New Zealand

27 January 1860–15 June 1864 – the novelist Samuel Butler in New Zealand
1860
c. March–April 1860 – Samuel Butler travels up the Waimakariri and sees Arthur’s Pass by looking up the Bealey River
April 1860 – Samuel Butler rides up the Rangitata River
6 September 1860 – Samuel Butler registered his claim to Run 387 between Bush Stream and Forest Creek overlooking the Rangitata River; on 22 September Run 242 is given to him
2 October 1860 – Samuel Butler sets off to the future site of Mesopotamia station from Christchurch
25 December 1860 – Christmas at Mesopotamia

1861
15 February 1861 – Julius von Haast officially becomes Canterbury’s Provincial Geologist
January–February 1861 – Samuel Butler and John Holland Baker explore the sources of the Lawrence, Havelock, Clyde, and Rangitata rivers; this trip is re-told in the beginning of Erewhon
March 1861 – Samuel Butler’s holdings amount to over 40,000 acres, with 2000 sheep; he has 6 workers
April 1861 – Julius von Haast stays with Samuel Butler at Mesopotamia while surveying the region around the Rangitata River, New Zealand
25 May 1861 – the Christchurch The Press begins under the ownership of James Edward Fitzgerald
September 1861 – Samuel Butler’s second hut at Mesopotamia finished; in this year he rides to Mount Somers to visit the Tripps

1862
March 1862 – Samuel Butler takes John Brabazon as a partner
August 1862 – Samuel Butler starts to shift to Christchurch; he corrects proofs of A First Year in Canterbury Settlement
August 1862 – Samuel Butler renounces Christianity
20 December 1862 – Samuel Butler publishes “Darwin on the Origin of Species, A Dialogue” in the Christchurch The Press

1863
13 June 1863 – Samuel Butler publishes “Darwin among the Machines” in The Press newspaper in Christchurch, New Zealand
September 1863 – Samuel Butler mainly based in Christchurch and staying at Carlton Hotel on the Papanui Road; he first meets Charles Paine Pauli
December 1863 – Samuel Butler rides with William Parkerson to Mesopotamia

1864
March 1864 – Arthur Dudley Dobson and his brother Edward find Arthur’s Pass
May 1864 – William Parkerson takes Mesopotamia
9 June 1864 – Samuel Butler says farewell to Julius von Haast
15 June 1864 – Samuel Butler and Charles Paine Pauli sail from Port Lyttelton, New Zealand, to return to England, via Callao, Panama, and St Thomas
16 February–23 March 1860 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels

11 May–30 September 1860 – Garibaldi’s Redshirts invade Sicily and Naples

16 June 1860 – first voyage of the SS Great Eastern to North America

30 June 1860 – famous debate on Charles Darwin’s On the Origin of Species between Samuel Wilberforce and Thomas Henry Huxley at Oxford University Museum, during the meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science

6 September 1860 – Samuel Butler registered his claim to Run 387 between Bush Stream and Forest Creek overlooking the Rangitata River; this becomes the Mesopotamia run

2 October 1860 – Samuel Butler sets off to the future site of Mesopotamia station from Christchurch, New Zealand

November 1860 – Marx’s wife Jenny fell seriously ill with smallpox; Marx read Darwin’s revolutionary book On the Origin of Species

6 November 1860 – United States presidential election of 1860; Abraham Lincoln elected

December 1860 – Marx published Karl Vogt

1 December 1860–3 August 1861 – Charles Dickens’ Great Expectations published in the journal All the Year Round in the UK

1860s
1861
1861 – Sheridan Le Fanu’s becomes editor and proprietor of the Dublin University Magazine

January–February 1861 – Samuel Butler and John Holland Baker explore the sources of the Lawrence, Havelock, Clyde, and Rangitata rivers; this trip is re-told in the beginning of Erewhon

February–May 1861 – Marx travels to Germany, and arrived in Berlin on 18 March, in order to attempt to organise with Lassalle a new radical newspaper in Germany that he could edit. He visited Trier at this time and saw his mother, but the visit did not go well and she broke off contact. Marx visits Holland. Marx arrived back in England in May 1861

19 February 1861 – Russian Tsar Alexander II abolishes serfdom

4 March 1861 – inauguration of Abraham Lincoln as US president (in office from 4 March 1861–15 April 1865)

17 March 1861 – Victor Emmanuel II was proclaimed King of Italy

April 1861 – Julius von Haast stays with Samuel Butler at Mesopotamia while surveying the region around the Rangitata River, New Zealand

12 April 1861–9 May 1865 – American Civil War

20 May 1861 – discovery of gold at Gabriel’s Gully in Otago, the first gold discovery of magnitude in Otago

20 May 1861–1864 – the Otago Gold Rush (the Central Otago Gold Rush), an 1860s gold rush in Central Otago, New Zealand, the largest gold strike in the country; centres in Lawrence (on the Tuapeka River); Arrowtown, Kawarau Gorge, Naseby

August–September 1861 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels

October 1861 – Julius Vogel emigrates to Otago, New Zealand

November 1861 – the Prince of Wales (the future Edward VII) returns from Ireland as an ensign and lives at Madingley Hall, Cambridge; his father Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha hears the rumour of an affair between Edward and an actress Nellie Clifden

November 1861 – Julius Vogel founds the Otago Daily Times and is its first editor

15 November 1861 – The Otago Daily Times first published

14 December 1861 – death of Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

1862
24 January 1862 – the principality of Moldavia and the principality of Wallachia formally unite to create Romania:
Princes
5 January 1859–5 February 1862 – Alexandru Ioan Cuza (Prince of Moldavia)
24 January 1859–5 February 1862 – Alexandru Ioan Cuza (Prince of Wallachia)

Domnitor/Kings of Romania
5 February 1862–22 February 1866 – Alexandru Ioan Cuza (Alexandru Ioan I), Domnitor of Romania

Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen Dynasty of Romania
20 April 1866–15 March 1881 – Carol, Domnitor of Romania (king in 1881)
15 March 1881–10 October 1914 – Carol I (born Prince Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen)
10 October 1914 – 20 July 1927 – Ferdinand I
11 February 1862 – death of Elizabeth Eleanor Siddal, wife of Dante Gabriel Rossetti

March 1862–May 1864 – Arminius Vámbéry’s central Asian journey

March 1862 – Arminius Vámbéry leaves Istanbul on a steamer on a journey to Tehran

April 1862 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels

1 April 1862 – Alfred Russel Wallace returns to England from the Malay Archipelago

1 May–1 November 1862 – the London International of 1862 (or Great London Exposition, a world’s fair), held beside the gardens of the Royal Horticultural Society, South Kensington, London, England (now the Natural History Museum and the Science Museum)

7 May 1862 – SS Great Eastern sails from Milford Haven to New York

16 May 1862 – Edward Gibbon Wakefield died in Wellington

July 1862 – the German radical Ferdinand Lassalle (1825–1864) visited Marx in London

27 August 1862 – SS Great Eastern scraped an uncharted rock off Long Island, which tore an 83 feet long gush in the outer hull. Since the inner hull was unbroken, ship was able to sail to New York; it then left New York on 6 January 1863

c. September 1862 – Marx sought a job in a railway company but was turned down for bad handwriting

December 1862 – Jenny Marx travels to Paris to try and obtain a loan from an old friend, but fails

1863
1863 – Henry Fawcett publishes the Manual of Political Economy

1863 – Marx starts to have severe health problems involving carbuncles, which may have been caused by an autoimmune disease

7 January 1863 – Mary Burns (1823–1863), partner of Friedrich Engels, dies

8 January 1863 – Marx writes a money-grubbing letter to Engels, which outrages Engels; however, Engels later sends £100 to Marx

19 January 1863–26 June 1879 – rule of Isma’il Pasha (or Ismail the Magnificent who lived from 31 December 1830 – 2 March 1895), the Khedive of Egypt and Sudan

28 March 1863 – Arminius Vámbéry leaves Tehran, Iran, on his Central Asian journey

April 1863 – Henry Whitcombe and Jakob Lauper (a Swiss) cross Whitcombe Pass into the West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand and travel down the Hokitika river

April 1863 – William Stanley Jevons takes tutoring position at Owens College, Manchester

13 June 1863 – Samuel Butler publishes “Darwin among the Machines” in The Press newspaper in Christchurch, New Zealand

July 1863 – Samuel Butler’s father publishes A First Year in Canterbury Settlement in his son’s name from the letters sent by Butler

6 July 1863 – Jakob Lauper’s narrative of his crossing to the West Coast is published in Canterbury Provincial Gazette

13–16 July 1863 – the New York draft riots (or “Draft Week”), violent disturbances in Lower Manhattan as part of working-class opposition to the draft law passed by Congress in the American Civil War

27 November 1863 – Henry Fawcett appointed Professor of Political Economy at Cambridge (27 November 1863–6 November 1884)

30 November 1863 – Marx’s mother dies, and Marx journeys to Trier to claim an inheritance of £580

1864
1864 – Jules Verne’s Voyage au centre de la Terre (Journey to the Center of the Earth) is published

8 January 1864 – birth of Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale

14 January 1864 – Great Eastern offered for sale; later sold to become a cable laying ship from 1865 to 1878

1864–December 1865 – King Ludwig II has Richard Wagner brought to Munich and Wagner’s time in Munich

1 February–30 October 1864 – Second Schleswig War

March 1864 – Marx moved to 1 Modena Villas (now 1 Maitland Park) in North London

March 1864–March 1875 – Marx family lives at 1 Modena Villas (now 1 Maitland Park) in North London
8 May–2 December 1850 – Marx family lives at 64 Dean Street, Soho
December 1850–September 1856 – Marx family lives at 28 Dean Street, Soho
29 September 1856–April 1864 – Marx family lives at 9 Grafton Terrace, Haverstock Hill, Kentish Town
March 1864–March 1875 – Marx family lives at 1 Modena Villas (now 1 Maitland Park) in North London
March 1875–14 March 1883 – Marx lives at 41 Maitland Park Road (44 Maitland Street) until he died
12 March–25 March 1864 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels

29 March 1864 – representatives of the United Kingdom, Greece, France, and Russia sign the Treaty of London, which pledges the transfer of the Ionian Islands to Greece upon ratification

10 April 1864 – Maximilian I declared himself Emperor of Mexico

May 1864 – Arminius Vámbéry returns to Hungary from Istanbul

2 May 1864 – the British leave the Ionian Islands

3 May–19 May 1864 – Marx visits Manchester to see Wilhelm Wolff with Engels

after 9 May 1864 – Marx receives an inheritance of £700 from his friend Wilhelm Wolff

21 May 1864 – the Ionian Islands officially reunite with Greece

15 June 1864 – Samuel Butler (accompanied by his friend Charles Paine Pauli) sails from Port Lyttelton, New Zealand, to return to England, via Callao, Panama, and St Thomas

27 June 1864 – Arminius Vámbéry appears at the British Royal Geographic Society

29 August 1864 – Samuel Butler arrives in Southampton

31 August 1864 – death of Ferdinand Lassalle in a duel

September 1864 – Samuel Butler lives at No. 15 Clifford’s Inn (off Fleet Street); he lives here for the rest of his life

28 September 1864 – Marx was involved with the International Workingmen’s Association or the First International (1864–1876), which was founded in a workmen’s meeting held in Saint Martin’s Hall, London

17 October 1864 – Arminius Vámbéry leaves London for France

2 November 1864–1870 – Bram Stoker attends Trinity College, Dublin; Stoker graduated with a Bachelor in Arts degree at the Spring Commencements on 1 March 1870

November 1864 – Arminius Vámbéry’s book Travels in Central Asia is published by John Murray

16 December 1864–1 November 1881 – construction of the nave and tower of Christchurch Cathedral, Cathedral Square; construction delayed from 1865–1873; the transepts, chancel and sanctuary finished until 1904

1865
1865–1866 – Gregor Johann Mendel (20 July 1822–6 January 1884) proposes his laws of biological inheritance while at the Augustinian St Thomas’s Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia

1865 – Jules Verne’s De la terre à la lune (From the Earth to the Moon) is published

1865–1869 – Richard Burton in Brazil

January 1865 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels

19 March–April 8 1865 – Marx visits Dutch relatives in Zalt-Bommel

April 1865 – William Stanley Jevons’ The Coal Question is published

30 April 1865 – death of Vice-Admiral Robert FitzRoy, captain of HMS Beagle during Charles Darwin’s famous voyage

9 June 1865 – the Staplehurst rail crash, the derailment at Staplehurst, Kent of the London boat train of the South Eastern Railway Folkestone; Charles Dickens with Ellen Ternan and her mother were on board

20 and 27 June 1865 – Marx’s delivers a series of lectures later published as Value, Price and Profit (in 1898)

1 July 1865 – Samuel Butler rewrites and expands “Darwin among the Machines” into “The Mechanical Creation” and publishes it in The Reasoner

26 July 1865 – New Zealand Parliament officially met in Wellington for the first time

29 July 1865 – Samuel Butler’s “Lucubratio Ebria” published in The Press newspaper in Christchurch, New Zealand

17 August–21 September 1865 – Samuel Butler travels to Europe, to Antwerp, Ghent, Bruges, Paris, Macon, Turin, Milan, Bologna, Florence, Leghorn; he then travels by steamer to Genoa, and back via Turin, Mâcon, Paris and London

October 1865 – Arminius Vámbéry receives an appointment as professor of Oriental languages in the University of Budapest; appointed professor in 1867

October 1865 – Friedrich Nietzsche transfers to the University of Leipzig to study Classical philology

20 October–November 1865 – Marx visits Manchester to see Engels

November 1865 – Alfred Marshall elected to a fellowship at St John’s College at Cambridge

8 December 1865 – Samuel Butler attends a séance at the home of Marshman with Alfred Russel Wallace

Christmas 1865 – Samuel Butler at Langar

1866
1866 – Bram Stoker receives a civil service post at Dublin Castle

1866–1871 – David Livingstone’s famous trip to find the source of the Nile

February 1866 – Charles Paine Pauli ill with typhoid, and is living with Samuel Butler

March 1866 – Marx spends four weeks convalescing in Margate

5 April 1866 – Alfred Russel Wallace marries Annie Mitten in Hurstpierpoint Anglican church

May 1866 – William Stanley Jevons appointed professor of moral philosophy and Cobden professor of political economy in Owens College, Manchester (May 1866–February 1876)

14 June–23 August 1866 – Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks’ War

20 June–12 August 1866 – Third Italian War of Independence fought between the Kingdom of Italy and the Austrian Empire

autumn 1866 – Samuel Butler and Charles Paine Pauli spend a holiday in Dieppe; they gradually reduce contact to lunch three times a week

3–8 September 1866 – 1st General Congress of the International Workingmen's Association, held in Geneva, Switzerland

1867
1867–1869 – Francis Ysidro Edgeworth studies at Oxford

1867 – Samuel Butler begins to study art at Heatherley’s at 79 Newman Street by December 1867

1 April–31 October 1867 – the International Exposition of 1867, held in the Champ-de-Mars, Paris, by decree of Emperor Napoleon III

9 April 1867 – Marx took the manuscript of volume 1 of Capital to his in Hamburg

22 May–2 June 1867 – Marx visits Manchester with Hermann Meyer to see Engels

29 May 1867 – Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867

19 June 1867 – execution of Maximilian I of Mexico

September 1867 – Carl Menger starts to study political economy

2–8 September 1867 – 2nd General Congress of the International Workingmen's Association (IWA), held in the city of Lausanne, Switzerland

14 September 1867 – the first volume of Das Kapital published in German

13–23 September 1867 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

November 1867–April 1868 – Charles Dickens’ second visit to the United States

9 November 1867 – opening of the Lyttelton railway tunnel for the Christchurch–Lyttleton line; the first freight train passes through the tunnel 18 November

14 November 1867 – Henrik Ibsen’s play Peer Gynt published in Copenhagen

by December 1867 – Samuel Butler begins to study art at Heatherley’s at 79 Newman Street by December 1867; Butler also attended the South Kensington Museum and Cary’s (Streatham Street, Bloomsbury), but ceased to go there after he went to Heatherley’s; he meets Eliza Mary Ann Savage at the school

1868
2 April 1868 – Marx’s daughter Laura Marx marries Paul Lafargue

30 May–20 June 1868 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

6–13 September 1868 – the Brussels Congress of the First International

15 September 1868 – opening of the Otago Museum, Dunedin, New Zealand, from the 1865 New Zealand Exhibition (held in Dunedin); it was originally located in the post office building of The Exchange

8 November 1868 – Friedrich Nietzsche meets Richard Wagner at a party in Leipzig

3 December 1868–17 February 1874 – William Ewart Gladstone is British Minister

1869
1869–1871 – Richard Francis Burton in Damascus

January 1869 – Matthew Arnold publishes Culture and Anarchy

March 1869–June 1870 – Jules Verne’s Vingt mille lieues sous les mers (Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea) is published and serialized in the periodical Magasin d’Éducation et de Récréation

9 March 1869 – Alfred Russel Wallace publishes The Malay Archipelago in two volumes

May–14 June 1869 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester with his daughter Eleanor

28 May 1869 – Friedrich Nietzsche’s first lecture as Assistant Professor of Classical Philology at the University of Basel (May 1869–2 May 1879) on “On the Personality of Homer”; full Professor in April 1870

1 June 1869 – Richard Francis Burton arrives in England from Brazil

30 June 1869 – Engels retires from Ermen and Engels

August 1869 – John Ruskin appointed as the first Slade Professor of Fine Art at Oxford University

6–12 September 1869 – Basle Congress of the International Workingmen's Association

September 1869 – Engels and Lizzie Burns visit Dublin, Killarney and Cork

10 September–11 October 1869 – Marx and his daughter Jenny Marx visit Hanover

November 1869 – Francis Galton’s Hereditary Genius: An Inquiry into Its Laws and Consequences is published by Macmillan; 2nd edn. 1892

November 1869–31 March 1870 – Samuel Butler travels via Antwerp, Brussels, Luxemburg, Basel, Fluelen, Airolo, Giornico, Bellinzona, Como, Villa d’Este, Milan, Bergamo, Brescia, Desenzano, Genoa, and San Remo to Mentone (he stays from mid-December–March 1870 for painting); he then goes on foot to Sospello, Giandola, Tenda; and by diligence to Cuneo, Turin, Parma, Modena, Florence, Bologna, Venice, Turin, Macon, Paris, and England

17 November 1869 – Suez Canal officially opened

December 1869 – Richard Francis Burton arrives in Damascus

1870s
1870
17 February 1870 – introduction of the UK Elementary Education Act 1870 (Forster’s Education Act), which requires the schooling of all children between the ages of 5 and 12 in England and Wales

25 March 1870–25 March 1872 – Alfred Russel Wallace rents Holly House, Tanner Street, Barking

5–21 April 1870 – Richard Francis Burton visits Palmyra

22 April 1870 – birth of Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (Lenin)

June 1870 – Edward A. Freeman receives an honorary degree of the Doctor of Civil Law from Oxford

9 June 1870–1874 – Arthur Evans attends Brasenose College, Oxford

9 June 1870 – death of Charles Dickens from a stroke

17 June–21 October 1870 – Friedrich Nietzsche in Axenstein bei Brunnen, Tribschen, Erlangen, and then in France and Naumburg during the Franco-Prussian war:
17–27 June 1870 – Friedrich Nietzsche on a trip to Axenstein bei Brunnen
28–30 June 1870 – Friedrich Nietzsche in Tribschen, where Elisabeth meets Wagner and Cosima
June 1870 – Friedrich Nietzsche writes the essay Die dionysische Weltanschauung (The Dionysian Worldview), the precursor to The Birth of Tragedy
13–22 August 1870 – Nietzsche in Erlangen for training
28 August–2 September 1870 – Nietzsche on the front, near Wörth (August 28), in Pont a Mousson (September 1), Sedan (September 2)
4–6 September 1870 – Nietzsche ill in Karlsruhe
15 September–21 October 1870 – Nietzsche recovers in Naumburg
25 December 1870 – Nietzsche attends the premiere of Wagner’s Siegfried-Idyll in Tribschen
19 July 1870–10 May 1871 – Franco-Prussian war

25 August 1870 – Richard Wagner’s marriage to Cosima Liszt (the daughter of the Hungarian composer Franz Liszt)

summer 1870 – Marx visits Engels in Manchester

2 September 1870 – Napoleon III surrenders to the Germans at Sedan

4 September 1870 – Léon Gambetta proclaimed the return of the French Republic

20 September 1870 – Engels moved from Manchester to London and lived with Lydia “Lizzie” Burns, Mary Burns’s sister

20 September 1870 – Italian troops take Rome from the Papacy, the last event of Italian unification (Risorgimento)

12 November 1870 – Léon Walras is appointed Adjunct Professor at the University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

16 December 1870 – Léon Walras gives his first lecture at the University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

December 1870–1871 – the diamond rush on the Orange River in South Africa

1871
1871 – Carl Menger publishes Grundsätze der Volkswirtschaftslehre (Principle of Economics)

1871–1874 – Oscar Wilde attends Trinity College, Dublin

1871–1887 – the construction of Larnach Castle on the Otago Peninsula, Dunedin, by William Larnach (1833–1898); Larnach himself took up residence in 1874

18 January 1871 – Wilhelm I formally proclaimed German Emperor in the Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles

28 January 1871 – the French Government of National Defence signs an armistice with the Prussians

24 February 1871 – Charles Darwin publishes The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex

1 March 1871 – the French national assembly officially deposed Napoleon III

18 March–28 May 1871 – Paris Commune

May–September 1871 – Samuel Butler travels to Antwerp, Cologne, Mayence, Carlsruhe, Basel, Gersau, Altdorf, Amsteg, Wasen, Hospenthal, and Bellinzona to Arona (in September; on Lago Maggiore), Varallo-Sesia (he stays some weeks at the Albergo d’Italia); Fobello, Arona, Bergamo, crosses the Splügen

c. 13 June 1871 – Marx published The Civil War in France

5 July 1871 – opening of the University of Otago, New Zealand; it relocates to Maxwell Bury’s Clocktower (a Gothic revival building) in 1879

24 July 1871 – Léon Walras is appointed Full Professor at the University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland

August 1871 – Richard Francis Burton recalled from Damascus

October 1871 – Francis Ysidro Edgeworth settles in London

October 1871 – William Stanley Jevons’ The Theory of Political Economy is published

8–10 October 1871 – the Great Chicago Fire, a conflagration in Chicago that killed 300 people, destroyed about 3.3 square miles of Chicago, Illinois, and left more than 100,000 people homeless

11 October 1871 – Heinrich Schliemann (6 January 1822–26 December 1890) begins excavation of mound of Hissarlik in western Turkey, the site of ancient Troy

10 November 1871 – Livingstone’s famous meeting with H. M. Stanley

25 November 1871 – Henry Irving abandons his wife Florence O’Callaghan

December 1871–March 1872 – Sheridan Le Fanu’s novel Carmilla serialised in the magazine The Dark Blue

1872
1872–1890 – Richard Francis Burton British Consul in Trieste

1872 – Sheridan Le Fanu publishes In a Glass Darkly, a collection of five short stories

2 January 1872 – Friedrich Nietzsche’s The Birth of Tragedy out of the Spirit of Music (Die Geburt der Tragödie aus dem Geiste der Musik) first published by E. W. Fritsch in Leipzig

March 1872 – Samuel Butler’s Erewhon: or, Over the Range is first published anonymously

25 March 1872–July 1876 – Alfred Russel Wallace lives at the Dell, Grays, Essex, where he lived until 1876

1 April–14 August 1872 – Heinrich Schliemann’s 1872 season at Hisarlik, during which he excavates part of the wall of Troy II

22 April 1872 – Wagner leaves Switzerland and travels to live in Bayreuth

18 May 1872 – birth of Bertrand Russell at Ravenscroft, Trellech, Monmouthshire

18–23 May 1872 – Friedrich Nietzsche’s first trip to Bayreuth; he sees the foundation of the theatre

30 May 1872 – Ulrich von Wilamowitz-Möllendorf publishes a severe criticism of The Birth of Tragedy in a pamphlet entitled Zukunftsphilologie!

June 1872 – Carl Menger obtains his Habilitierung for Political Economy at the University of Vienna

26 June 1872–22 February 1873 – Engels publishes The Housing Question in Volksstaat

July 1872 – Samuel Butler’s Erewhon: or, Over the Range published in a slightly revised second edition

August 1872 – Arthur Evans and Norman Evans travel to Petrozsény, Hermannstadt, Mühlenbach, Kronstadt, Kimpina, Ploesti, Bucharest, Giurgevo, Rustchuk, and along the Danube to Belgrade

2–7 September 1872 – 5th congress of the First International meets in the Hague; Bakunin was expelled from the International and the General Council was moved to New York, which effectively killed the International so that it dissolved in 1876

October–November 1872 – Edward A. Freeman visits Aachen, Koln, Mainz, Würzburg, Innsbruck, Trent, Verona, Venice, Padua, Bologna, Ravenna, Pisa, Modena, Parma, Piacenza, Pistoia, Pavia, Milan, and Switzerland

10 October 1872 – Marx’s daughter Jenny Marx marries the French socialist Charles Longuet

November 1872 – Samuel Butler visits Charles Darwin at Down

6 December 1872 – Richard Francis Burton arrives in Trieste

1873
1873 – Walter Bagehot (editor of The Economist) publishes Lombard Street

March 1873 – Samuel Butler publishes The Fair Haven

1873–1874 – the Bihar famine of 1873–1874 (or Bengal famine of 1873–1874), a famine in British India after a drought in Bihar, parts of Bengal, the North-Western Provinces and Oudh; a relief effort was organized by Sir Richard Temple, Lieutenant-Governor of Bengal

1 January 1873 – Dunedin’s first railway, the Port Chalmers Branch, opened

30 January 1873 – Jules Verne’s Le tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours (Around the World in Eighty Days) is published; serialised in 1872

February–June 1873 – Heinrich Schliemann’s third season of excavation, the 1873 season at Hisarlik; Schliemann discovers the paved ramp of Troy II

7 February 1873 – death of the novelist Joseph Thomas Sheridan Le Fanu (28 August 1814–7 February 1873) in Dublin

19 March 1873 – Marx goes on a trip to Brighton with his daughter Eleanor

April 1873 – Marx leaves his daughter Eleanor in Brighton, since she wishes to leave home and find employment

1 April 1873 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife leave Trieste for a trip to Italy and Vienna:
1 April 1873 – Richard Francis Burton leaves Trieste by ship for Ancona and Loreto
3 April – Richard Francis Burton arrives in Rome, then travels to Florence, Pistojia and Bologna
25 April 1873 – Richard Francis Burton arrives back in Trieste
1 May 1873 – Richard Francis Burton in Vienna for the opening ceremony of the 1873 Vienna World’s Fair (World Exposition 1873 Vienna)
c. 22 May 1873 – Richard Francis Burton leave Vienna
8 April 1873–6 July 1875 – Julius Vogel is Premier of New Zealand

May 1873 – Arthur Evans publishes his travel essay “Over the Marches of Civilised Europe” in Fraser’s Magazine

May–July 1873 – Friedrich Max Müller publishes three lectures on “Mr. Darwin’s Philosophy of Language” in Fraser’s Magazine, which he gave at the Royal Institution

1 May–31 October 1873 – the World Exposition 1873 Vienna (Weltausstellung 1873 Wien), held in Prater, Vienna

after May 1873 – Elisée Reclus travels to Hungary and Petrozsény

9 May 1873 – the Vienna Stock Exchange crashes, and a number of bank failures in Austria occur

22 May–June 1873 – Marx visits Manchester to see Dr Gumpert

16 June 1873 – Canterbury Provincial Council Ordinance establishes University of Canterbury in Christchurch; from 1874 to 1961 University of New Zealand was New Zealand’s only degree-granting university, and included Otago and Canterbury

June 1873 – the second German edition of volume I of Das Kapital is published in Hamburg

June 1873 – Heinrich Schliemann and his wife Sophia Schliemann discover a cache of golden bracelets, diadems, earrings and rings at Hissarlik; it is dubbed “Priam’s Treasure”

June 1873 – George Bernard Shaw leaves Dublin for London

June 1873 – Karl Marx sends Charles Darwin the second German edition of Das Kapital; Thomas Huxley visits Charles Darwin at Downe house, before Huxley’s trip to the Continent

6 June 1873 – the Schönbrunn Convention is signed by Russia and Austria-Hungary

19 July 1873 – death of Samuel Wilberforce, the Anglican bishop and third son of William Wilberforce

Autumn 1873 – Freud enters Vienna University as medical student

September 1873 – Carl Menger becomes non-tenured associated professor in the Faculty of Law and Political Science at the University of Vienna (1873– 1903)

early September 1873 – Marx’s daughter Eleanor returned to London

18 September 1873 – the American company Jay Cooke & Company declares bankruptcy; the Panic of 1873 begins

20 September 1873 – the New York Stock Exchange closes for ten days starting on this day

1 October 1873 – Charles Darwin writes a letter to Karl Marx, thanking him for the gift of the second German edition of Das Kapital

22 October 1873 – Bismarck establishes the League of the Three Emperors between the German Empire, Russia, and Austria-Hungary from 1873 to 1878; it was dissolved over territorial disputes in the Balkans in 1878; revived in June 1881

November 1873 – the Harvard philosopher John Fiske visits Charles Darwin at Downe house

18–21 November 1873 – Irish Home Rule League founded

24 November 1873 – Marx leaves London for a spa in Harrogate (near Leeds in North England), owing to bad heath; he is accompanied by Eleanor “Tussy” Marx and visits Manchester twice during the holiday; he stays until December 15

15 December 1873 – Marx returns to London

1874
1874 – Léon Walras publishes Éléments d’économie politique pure, ou théorie de la richesse sociale (Elements of Pure Economics, or the Theory of Social Wealth)

1874–1878 – Oscar Wilde attends Magdalen College, Oxford

January 1874 – Charles Darwin visits London to consult Dr Andrew Clark; Darwin attends a séance at the home of his brother Erasmus

31 January–17 February 1874 – the United Kingdom general election of 1874; the results:
Party | Seats Won
Conservative | 350
Liberal | 242
Home Rule | 60
Benjamin Disraeli’s Conservatives win the majority of seats in the House of Commons, even though the Liberals win a majority of the votes cast, and Benjamin Disraeli becomes UK Prime Minister on 20 February 1874

February 1874 – Heinrich Schliemann publishes Trojanische Alterthümer

20 February 1874–21 April 1880 – Benjamin Disraeli is Prime Minister of the UK

21 February 1874–2 April 1878 – Robert Gascoyne-Cecil (3rd Marquess of Salisbury) is UK Secretary of State for India

c. 7 March 1874 – New Zealand University Act

April 1874 – William Stanley Jevons’ Principles of Science is published

April 1874 – Charles Darwin sends the second edition of the Descent of Man to the printers

mid-April 1874 – Marx takes a three-week seaside cure alone at Ramsgate (near Canterbury), owing to bad health (carbuncles and liver trouble)

15 April 1874 – Lord Randolph Churchill marries Jennie Jerome (an American from New York and daughter of Leonard Jerome)

10 June 1874 – Samuel Butler sails for Montreal

June–c. 17 July 1874 – Samuel Butler in Montreal

June 1874 – teaching begins at the University of Canterbury in Christchurch, New Zealand, in its first term, with five part-time lecturers

June–July 1874 – Richard Francis Burton becomes seriously in Trieste

July 1874 – Marx took a three-week vacation in Ryde on the Isle of Wight

c. 17 July–5 August 1874 – Samuel Butler returns to London

August 1874 – Charles Darwin and his family take a holiday in Southampton

c. August–21 September 1874 – Richard Francis Burton in Padua to see a doctor and Battaglia to recover from illness

5 August 1874–May 1875 – Samuel Butler in Montreal, Canada

7 August 1874 – the UK Public Worship Regulation Act 1874, introduced as a private member’s bill by the Archbishop of Canterbury Archibald Campbell Tait, to restrict the ritualism of Anglo-Catholicism and the Oxford Movement within the Church of England, is given royal assent

15 August 1874 – Marx departed for the spa town of Karlsbad in Bohemia (which he also visited in 1875 and 1876) with his daughter Tussy

August–19 September 1874 – Marx in Karlsbad (a spa resort, now Karlovy Vary in the Czech Republic); before 8 September Marx breaks with Louis (Ludwig) Kugelmann

September 1874 – Marx went on a two-week tour of German cities and travels to Dresden, Leipzig (where he met Liebknecht), Berlin and Hamburg; he meets his publisher Meissner

17 October 1874 – Oscar Wilde enters Magdalen College, Oxford

October 1874–November 1878 – Oscar Wilde attends Magdalen College, Oxford to study for a Bachelor of Arts degree

November 1874 – Richard Wagner finishes the score of the Ring of the Niebelungen

13 November 1874 – the second edition of the Descent of Man is published

30 November 1874 – birth of Winston Churchill

8 December 1874 – Isabel Burton leaves Trieste for England; she arrives 12 December

1875
14 January 1875 – enactment of US Specie Payment Resumption Act, which restores the gold standard by redemption of fiat notes printed after the American Civil War

22 January 1875 – death of Charles Lyell

9 February 1875 – Bram Stoker awarded a Master’s degree from Trinity College

March 1875 – Marx family moves to 41 Maitland Park Road (44 Maitland Street), and lived here until he died

March 1875–14 March 1883 – Marx lives at 41 Maitland Park Road (44 Maitland Street) until he died

20 March 1875 – Heinrich Schliemann’s Troy and its Remains is published by John Murray, London; this is an English translation of Trojanische Alterthümer. Bericht über die Ausgrabungen in Troja (1874)

25 March 1875 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s comic opera Trial by Jury premières

April–July 1875 – Arthur Evans attended a summer term at the University of Göttingen

April or early May 1875 – Marx writes the letter that would become the Critique of the Gotha Program, which was only published in 1891

21 April 1875 – Charles Stewart Parnell elected to the House of Commons

12 May–4 December 1875 – Richard Francis Burton in England

June 1875–spring 1876 – Andrew Crosse’s journey from Budapest along the Danube to Romania and Transylvania

June–July 1875 – Heinrich Schliemann visits Britain and gives a lecture at the Society of Antiquaries on 24 June

c. 6–30 July 1875 – Richard Francis Burton in Iceland

9 July 1875–4 August 1877 – Herzegovina Uprising, an uprising of ethnic Serbs against the Ottoman Empire, firstly in Herzegovina and then in Bosnia

July 1875–3 March 1878 – Balkan Wars of 1875–1878:
(1) July 1875 – Herzegovina Uprising (9 July 1875–4 August 1877), an uprising of ethnic Serbs against the Ottoman Empire, firstly in Herzegovina and then in Bosnia
(2) April 1876 – April Uprising of Bulgarians (April–May 1876) against the Ottoman Empire
(3) June 1876 – Montenegrin–Ottoman War (18 June 1876–19 February 1878), which ends in Montenegrin victory
(4) June 1876 – Serbo-Turkish War (30 June 1876–3 March 1878)
(5) December 1876 – Constantinople Conference of the Great Powers (namely, Russia, Germany, France, Britain, Austria-Hungary and Italy) held in Istanbul (23 December 1876–20 January 1877)
(6) April 1877 – Russo-Turkish War (24 April 1877–3 March 1878)
(7) 3 March 1878 – the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano
(8) 13 June–13 July 1878 – Congress of Berlin
(9) 13 July 1878 – Treaty of Berlin signed at the Radziwill Palace in Berlin
August 1875 – Marx returned to the Karlsbad spa

August–September 1875 – Arthur Evans travels in Bosnia, and visits Tesanj, Sarajevo, Mostar, Metković, and Ragusa

17 August 1875 – Heinrich Schliemann gives a lecture on “Troy and its Ruins” at the University of Rostock, Germany

after August 1875 – Heinrich Schliemann publishes Troja und seine Ruinen (C. Quandt, Waren 1875)

c. September 1875 – Samuel Butler back in Montreal, Canada and goes to New York

September 1875 – Carl Menger invited to be a tutor to Archduke Rudolf von Habsburg, the Crown Prince of Austria

October 1875 – Edward A. Freeman visits Spalato

October 1875–May 1876 – the Prince of Wales (the future Edward VII) tours India

November 1875 – Francis Galton publishes a study called “History of Twins as a Criterion of the Relative Powers of Nature and Nurture” in Fraser’s Magazine

November 1875 – Benjamin Disraeli buys the Khedive of Egypt’s 44% stake in the Suez canal; The Times newspaper reveals this on 26 November, 1875

3 November 1875 – Charles Darwin appears before a Royal Commission on vivisection of animals

17 November 1875 – the Theosophical Society officially founded in New York City by Helena Petrovna Blavatsky, Colonel Henry Steel Olcott, William Quan Judge, and others

4 December 1875 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife leave London for Trieste

7 December 1875 – Samuel Butler back in London

24 December 1875 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife arrive in Trieste from England

31 December 1875 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife sail from Trieste for India; they visit Port Said, Jedda, and Aden in January 1876

1876
1876 – Cesare Lombroso’s L’Uomo Delinquente (Criminal Man) first published

1876 – Heinrich Schliemann returns to Troy after January, but leaves by August

1876 – Julius von Haast appointed professor of geology and palaeontology at University of Canterbury, New Zealand

3 January 1876–1879 – Carl Menger is tutor of Archduke Rudolf von Habsburg, the Crown Prince of Austria in political economy and statistics

1 January 1876 – founding of the German Reichsbank

February 1876 – William Stanley Jevons resigns as professor of moral philosophy and Cobden professor of political economy in Owens College

2 February–April 1876 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife in India: Bombay, Poona, Hyderabad, Amir el-Kebir, Karachi and Sind (March), Kotri, Karachi, Bombay, Mahabaleshwar, Goa

8 February 1876–May 1877 – the Great Sioux War of 1876–1877. The Agreement of 1877 (28 February 1877) officially annexes Sioux land and establishes Indian reservations

24 February 1876 – the play Peer Gynt first performed in Oslo, with original music composed by Edvard Grieg

15 February 1876–1 September 1876 – Julius Vogel is Premier of New Zealand

10 March 1876 – first telephone call made between Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Watson

April–May 1876 – April Uprising, the insurrection of Bulgarians against the Ottoman Empire

April 1876 – Richard Francis Burton in Egypt; he visits Suez, Moses’ Well, Cairo

April 1876–1877 – Cecil John Rhodes (5 July 1853–26 March 1902) returns to his second term at Oxford:
September 1868–January 1894 – reign of Lobengula Khumalo, last king of the Northern Ndebele (Matabele) people
1 September 1870 – Cecil John Rhodes (5 July 1853–26 March 1902) arrives in Durban, Natal
October 1871–1873 – Cecil Rhodes and Herbert Rhodes in the diamond fields of Kimberley
1873 – Cecil Rhodes stays at Oxford for one term
1873–1876 – Cecil Rhodes in South Africa
March 1876 – Cecil Rhodes leaves South Africa
April 1876–1877 – Cecil Rhodes returns to his second term at Oxford
9 May 1883–10 September 1900 – Paul Kruger is president of the South African Republic (Transvaal)
13 March 1888 – Cecil Rhodes and C.D. Rudd launch De Beers Consolidated Mines (with Rhodes as secretary and with largest interest in the mine); Rhodes named chairman of De Beers
30 October 1888 – the Rudd Concession by King Lobengula of Matabeleland (Rhodesia) giving exclusive mining rights to Cecil Rhodes
1889 – Queen Victoria signs charter to allow Cecil Rhodes’ British South Africa Company (BSAC) to administer Rhodesia as a British protectorate
1889–1923 – Rhodesia under control of the British South Africa Company (and called Southern Rhodesia 1911–1964)
17 July 1890–12 January 1896 – Cecil Rhodes is Prime Minister of Cape Colony
October 1893–January 1894 – First Matabele War between the British South Africa Company and the Ndebele (Matabele) Kingdom
29 December 1895–2 January 1896 – Jameson Raid against the Transvaal by Leander Starr Jameson and his Company troops (from the British South Africa Company) and Bechuanaland policemen
March 1896–October 1897 – Second Matabele War between the British South Africa Company and Ndebele (Matabele) people
26 March 1902 – death of Cecil Rhodes at his seaside cottage in Muizenberg near Cape Town
1902 – the Rhodes Scholarships established
12 April 1876–8 June 1880 – Lord Lytton (1831–1891) is Governor-General and Viceroy of India
Governors-General and Viceroys of India
12 January 1869–8 February 1872 – Earl of Mayo (1822–1872)
9 February 1872–23 February 1872 – Sir John Strachey (acting) (1823–1907)
24 February 1872–3 May 1872 – Lord Napier (acting)
3 May 1872–12 April 1876 – Lord Northbrook (1826–1904)
12 April 1876–8 June 1880 – Lord Lytton (1831–1891)
8 June 1880–13 December 1884 – Marquess of Ripon (1827–1909)
13 December 1884–10 December 1888 – Earl of Dufferin (1826–1902)
10 December 1888–11 October 1894 – Marquess of Lansdowne (1845–1927)
11 October 1894–6 January 1899 – Earl of Elgin (1849–1917)
6 January 1899–18 November 1905 – Lord Curzon of Kedleston (1859–1925)
May–June 1876 – Turkish suppression of rebellions in Bulgaria

May–August 1876 – Samuel Butler visits Faido (3 weeks), Mendrisio (month), Fusio, over Sassello Grande to Airolo, Piora (c. June 1876)

1 May 1876 – Queen Victoria declared empress of India

10 May–10 November 1876 – the Centennial International Exhibition of 1876, held in Fairmount Park, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, US

13 May 1876 – the Berlin Memorandum was circulated in the city of Berlin; Berlin Memorandum was drawn up by Russia, Austria-Hungary, and Germany to address the Eastern Question

16 May 1876 – British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli rejects the Berlin Memorandum

28 May–3 August 1876 – Charles Darwin begins to write his “Recollections”; revised in April 1881

June 1876 – Arthur J. Evans publishes Through Bosnia and the Herzegovina on Foot during the Insurrection, August and September 1875

June–July 1876 – Serbia and Montenegro declare war on Turkey

c. 18 June 1876 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife arrive back in Trieste

18 June 1876–19 February 1878 – Montenegrin–Ottoman War, which ends in Montenegrin victory

25–26 June 1876 – Battle of the Little Bighorn. Victory of the forces of the Lakota, Northern Cheyenne, and Arapaho tribes (led by Crazy Horse and Chief Gall) against the 7th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army

30 June 1876–3 March 1878 – Serbo-Turkish War

10 July 1876 – Friedrich Nietzsche publishes Richard Wagner in Bayreuth

July 1876–March 1878 – Alfred Russel Wallace rents Rose Hill, Dorking, Surrey

c. August 1876–1878 – the Great Famine of 1876–1878 in India (or Southern India Famine of 1876–1878 or the Madras famine of 1877), a famine in India beginning in 1876 and affecting Madras, Mysore, Hyderabad, and Bombay for two years

7 August–December 1876 – Heinrich Schliemann’s excavations at Mycenae

10 August 1876 – John Neville Keynes receives a telegram about his appointment to a Fellowship of Pembroke College, Cambridge (which he held from August 1876–12 August 1882)

12 August 1876 – Friedrich Nietzsche travels to Bayreuth to see the first performance of the Ring cycle; Kaiser Wilhelm also attends this

13 August 1876 – beginning of the famous 1876 Bayreuth Festival and performance of Wagner’s Das Rheingold, prelude of Der Ring des Nibelungen (The Ring of the Nibelungen) at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus. The following plays are performed:
13 August 1876 – Das Rheingold (The Rhinegold)
14 August 1876 – Die Walküre (The Valkyrie)
16 August 1876 – Siegfried
17 August 1876 – Götterdämmerung (The Twilight of the Gods)
Marx arrives in Nuremberg at about 5 pm on 14 August and was unable to find accommodation in Nuremberg; he travels on to Weiden and arrives at midnight but finds no accommodation there either, because of the festival at Bayreuth; first Bayreuth Festival continues until 30 August 1876

16 August 1876 – Richard Wagner’s Siegfried premiered at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus

17 August 1876 – Richard Wagner’s Götterdämmerung (Twilight of the Gods) premiered at the Bayreuth Festspielhaus

19 August 1876 – Marx writes a letter to Engels from Karlsbad calling the Bayreuth Festival “Wagner’s Festival of Fools”

August–September 1876 – Marx returned to the Karlsbad spa with his daughter Tussy

21 August 1876 – Benjamin Disraeli was created Earl of Beaconsfield

5 September 1876 – William Gladstone published The Bulgarian Horrors and the Question of the East

6–12 September 1876 – Marx delayed in Karlsbad after his daughter Eleanor becomes ill with a fever

11 September 1876 – Amy Darwin, wife of Frank Darwin, dies of a fever after birth of Charles Darwin’s grandson

mid-September 1876 – Marx visits Max Oppenheim in Prague and then journeys the down the middle Rhine

21 September 1876 – Marx in Liège, Belgium

27 September 1876 – Theodore Roosevelt entered Harvard College; he graduated on 30 June 1880

October 1876 – William Stanley Jevons gives his first lecture as Professor of Political Economy at University College, London (from October 1876–May 1881); Jevons moves to The Chestnuts, Branch Hill, Hampstead Heath

October 1876–August 1881 – Arthur Conan Doyle studies at the University of Edinburgh Medical School; Arthur Conan Doyle meets the Scottish lecturer Joseph Bell in 1877, who is the inspiration for Sherlock Holmes

November 1876–August 1877 – Henry Morton Stanley’s expedition up the Lualaba river to the Congo River

November 1876 – Eugene Schuyler, the American Consul in Istanbul, publishes a report about the Bulgarian atrocities after his own investigation

30 November 1876 – Heinrich Schliemann opens the fifth of the Shaft Graves at Mycenae, and finds a tomb he believes to be that of Agamemnon; Schliemann reportedly sends a telegram to the king of Greece saying “I have gazed on the face of Agamemnon”

December 1876 – Bram Stoker gives a favourable review of Henry Irving’s Hamlet at the Theatre Royal in Dublin

3 December 1876 – Bram Stoker attends Henry Irving’s private reading of The Dream of Eugene Aram

23 December 1876–20 January 1877 – Constantinople Conference of the Great Powers (namely, Russia, Germany, France, Britain, Austria-Hungary and Italy) held in Istanbul

1877
1877 – Edward A. Freeman publishes The Ottoman Power in Europe: Its Nature, its Growth, and its Decline by Macmillan

1877 – Samuel Butler’s art career wanes

January 1877 – Arthur Evans travels to Dalmatia as a correspondent of the Manchester Guardian

1 January 1877 – Lord Lytton holds a great Durbar in Delhi at which Lord Lytton proclaimed Queen Victoria as Empress of India

8 January 1877 – Crazy Horse and his Oglala Lakota warriors fight a last major battle at Wolf Mountain, Montana

January/February 1877 – Richard Francis Burton travels to Zagreb

March–April 1877 – Oscar Wilde’s trip to Italy and Greece; he visits Corfu, Zante, Olympia, Andritzena, Tripolitza, Argos, Nauplia, Aegina, Athens, Mycenae, Naples, and Rome 28/29

3 March 1877 – Richard Francis Burton leaves Trieste for Egypt

8 March–6 May 1877 – Richard Francis Burton in Egypt; Alexandria, Cairo (where he met the Khedive Isma’il Pasha); on 25 March the Khedive gives Burton permission to find gold in the Sinai; he goes to Zagazig, Suez (30 March), Wady Aynunah (4–9 April), Jebel el-Zahd, El-Muwaylah; last day in Arabia on 18 April; Suez (21 April); Cairo (until 27 April), and Alexandria

10 March 1877 – William Gladstone meets Charles Darwin at Downe house, with John Morley and Thomas Henry Huxley in attendance

22 March 1877 – Heinrich Schliemann gives a talk to the Society of Antiquaries on his excavations at Mycenae at Burlington House, London

24 March 1877 – death of Walter Bagehot

April 1877 – Oscar Wilde arrives at Oxford where he has been rusticated

16 April 1877 – Romania and Russia sign the treaty of Bucharest under which Russian troops were allowed to pass through Romanian territory

24 April 1877–3 March 1878 – Russo-Turkish War

24 April 1877–3 March 1878 – the Romanian War of Independence, the Romanian participation in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), after which Romania obtained independence from the Ottoman Empire

mid-May–July 1877 – Samuel Butler visits Canton Ticino, Mendrisio

4 May–4 July 1877 – Edward A. Freeman with his two daughters visits Trieste, Corfu, Peloponnesus, Athens, Marathon, Tiryns, Argos, Larissa, Mykene, Nemea, Akrokorinthos, Patras, and Olympia. He returned via Zante, Ithaka, Corfu, Durazzo, Spalato, Traü, Zara, and Pola

12 May 1877 – Richard Francis Burton arrives in Trieste from Egypt

22 May 1877 – the act officially declaring the full independence of Romania signed by Prince Carol I

mid-1877 – new buildings of Canterbury College, New Zealand, completed

June 1877 – Arthur Evans meets Edward Augustus Freeman in Ragusa

c. 14 June–July 1877 – Edward A. Freeman visits Dalmatia

18 June 1877 – Charles Bradlaugh and Annie Besant’s trial at the Old Bailey for a pamphlet on contraception

July 1877 – Alfred Marshall marries Mary Paley

25 July 1877–1883 – Alfred Marshall is Professor of Political Economy at Bristol University College; a hiatus from 1881–1882 while on holiday in Sicily

August–September 1877 – Marx, his wife Jenny and daughter Eleanor travel for a holiday to Neuenahr, a spa town in Rhenish Prussia

August 1877 – establishment of the Dogberry Club, a Shakespeare reading group

9 August 1877 – Henry Morton Stanley and his men reach the Portuguese outpost of Boma around 100 kilometres from the mouth of the Congo River on the Atlantic Ocean

11 August 1877 – the new building of the Otago Museum on 419 Great King Street was opened; the foundation was laid in December 1874; management of the museum passes to University of Otago in 1877; in 1955 a trust board becomes owner

autumn 1877 – Charles Darwin visits Abinger, North Downs

19 October 1877–12 May 1878 – Richard Francis Burton in Egypt; possible trip to Karlsbad

17 October–12 November 1877 – Gladstone visits Ireland

17–18 November 1877 – Charles Darwin visits Cambridge university and given an honorary Doctorate of Laws

21 November 1877 – Thomas A. Edison announces the development of the phonograph

December 1877–May 1878 – Edward A. Freeman visits Italy and Sicily

6 December 1877 – first sound recording is made by Thomas Edison

7 December 1877 – Thomas A. Edison demonstrates the gramophone

6 December 1877–12 May 1878 – Richard Francis Burton in Egypt and on expedition to Midian; he leaves for Suez on 6 December; he sails from Suez on 10 December; on 19 December they land at El-Muwaylah; 21 December he leaves for Aynunah; Maghair Shu’ayb; Makna (25 January–2 February 1878); El-Akabah, South Midian, Shuwak, Ziba, El Wijh, El-Haura, Bada plain, El Wijh (5–12 April 1878), Suez (20 April 1878), Zagazig, Cairo (22 April–10 May 1878), Alexandria

20 December 1877–December 1880 – Heinrich Schliemann’s Trojan exhibition in London

1878
1878 – Richard Francis Burton publishes The Gold Mines of Midian and the Ruined Midianite Cities (C. Kegan Paul and Co.)

1878 – Andrew F. Crosse publishes Round about the Carpathians

1878–1882 – Arthur Evans in Ragusa, Casa San Lazzaro

March 1878 – Charles Darwin consults Dr Clark in London

March 1878 – William Stanley Jevons’ A Primer on Political Economy is published

March 1878 – Arthur Evans in Dubrovnik; he rents the Casa San Lazzaro

March 1878–1880 – Alfred Russel Wallace rents Waldron Edge, Duppas Hill Lane, Croydon

3 March 1878 – the preliminary Treaty of San Stefano

1 April 1878 – the Salisbury Circular written by Lord Salisbury circulated to the Great Powers

2 April 1878–28 April 1880 – Robert Gascoyne-Cecil (3rd Marquess of Salisbury) is UK Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs

1 May–10 November 1878 – the 3rd Paris World’s Fair (Exposition Universelle), held in the Palais du Trocadéro, the Avenue des Nations, Paris

17 May 1878 – Richard Francis Burton and wife arrive in Trieste from Egypt

25 May 1878 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s H.M.S. Pinafore first performed at the Opera Comique, London

26 May 1878 – the Turkish Sultan agrees to the Cyprus Convention

June 1878 – Oscar Wilde takes his final exams at Oxford

June 1878 – Sir Henry Morton Stanley’s Through the Dark Continent published

4 June 1878 – the Cyprus Convention, the secret agreement between the United Kingdom and the Ottoman Empire which granted Cyprus to Great Britain in return for a guarantee against Russian aggression, is formally signed

13 June–13 July 1878 – Congress of Berlin

July 1878 – Engels published the Anti-Dühring (1878), which was first published in serial form from January 3 1877 to July 7 1878 in the journal Vorwärts

6 July 1878 – Richard Francis Burton and wife sail from Trieste for Liverpool

8 July 1878 – the British Daily Telegraph announced the Cyprus Convention

13 July 1878 – Treaty of Berlin signed at the Radziwill Palace in Berlin

16 July 1878 – Benjamin Disraeli and Lord Salisbury return to London greeted by cheering crowds from the Berlin Conference; they arrive at Dover at 2.40 p.m.

22 July 1878 – Sir Garnet Wolseley arrives in Cyprus in H. M. S. Himalaya and takes possession of Cyprus

27 July 1878–April 1879 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife in England, with August trip to Ireland; London (October 1878)

August–September 1878 – Heinrich Schliemann excavated several sites on Ithaca

August 1878 – Samuel Butler in Sacro Monte, Locarno, Bignasco, Fusio, Tacino Valley, Faido

August 1878 – Friedrich Nietzsche publicly attacks Richard Wagner

12 August 1878 – Richard Francis Burton and wife travel by night mail to Dublin, Ireland; they meet Bram Stoker

31 August 1878 – the famous Victorian actor Henry Irving takes the lease of the Lyceum Theatre, London; the Irish writer Bram Stoker becomes his business manager in October

19 August 1878 – Richard Francis Burton gives a lecture on the land of Midian in Dublin

September–November 1878 – Heinrich Schliemann returns to Troy

4 September 1878 – publication of second edition of Friedrich Nietzsche’s book The Birth of Tragedy, or: Hellenism and Pessimism, which was prepared and printed in 1874

12 September 1878 – Lydia “Lizzie” Burns dies

c. September 1878–1 September 1880 – Second Anglo–Afghan War:
22 July 1878 – Russian envoys arrive in Kabul, capital of Sher Ali Khan, the Amir of Afghanistan
14 August 1878 – the British demand that Sher Ali accept a British mission
September 1878 – a British diplomatic mission on the way to Kabul is turned back near the east of the Khyber Pass; this triggers the Second Anglo–Afghan War
21 November 1878 – a British force of 50,000 invades Afghanistan at three different points
20 December 1878 – British advance to Jalalabad
26 May 1879 – the Treaty of Gandamak, signed by King Mohammad Yaqub Khan of Afghanistan and Sir Louis Cavagnari, officially ends the first phase of the Second Anglo-Afghan War; Afghanistan cedes frontier areas to Britain; the Durand Line forms the border between Afghanistan and the British Raj
24 July 1879 – British mission under Sir Louis Cavagnari arrives in Kabul
3 September 1879 – uprising in Kabul and slaughter of Sir Louis Cavagnari, the British representative, along with his guards and staff
6 October 1879 – Major General Sir Frederick Roberts leads the Kabul Field Force and defeats the Afghan Army at Char Asiab
8 October 1879 – Major General Sir Frederick Roberts occupies Kabul
December 1879 – uprising of 10,000 Afghans attacks British forces near Kabul in the Siege of the Sherpur Cantonment
27 July 1880 – the Battle of Maiwand; the Afghan force of Ayub Khan defeats British and Indian troops under Brigadier-General George Burrows
1 September 1880 – the Battle of Kandahar, the last major conflict of the war and a decisive British victory, between British forces under Frederick Sleigh Roberts and Afghan forces led by Ayub Khan.
4–14 September 1878 – Marx is in Malvern, Worcester, with his wife, his daughter Jenny and his grandson

16 September 1878 – Engels leaves for Littlehampton (near Worthing)

19 September 1878 – Arthur Evans marries Margaret Freeman, daughter of the historian Edward Augustus Freeman, in England

20 September 1878 – Jenny Marx arrives in London

October 1878 – Arthur Evans and Margaret Freeman return to the Balkans to live in Ragusa

19 October 1878 – Anti-Socialist laws in Germany

November 1878 – Oscar Wilde graduates from Magdalen College, Oxford

25–26 November 1878 – James McNeill Whistler sues the critic John Ruskin, and wins

4 December 1878 – Florence Balcombe (1858–1937) and Bram Stoker married

9 December 1878 – Bram Stoker joins Henry Irving in Birmingham

30 December 1878 – Henry Irving revives the play Hamlet at the Lyceum with Ellen Terry as Ophelia

1879
1879 – Bram Stoker publishes his first book The Duties of Clerks of Petty Sessions in Ireland

1879 – Richard Francis Burton publishes The Land of Midian (Revisited) (2 vols)

1879 – Julius von Haast publishes Geology of the Provinces of Canterbury and Westland, New Zealand

1879 – the University of Otago, New Zealand, moves to its modern site when the neo-Gothic Clocktower building was completed

1879 – Carl Menger appointed as chair of law and political economy at the University of Vienna (1879–1903)

1879 – Charles Paine Pauli making around 700–1,000 pounds a year from his law profession

11 January–4 July 1879 – Anglo-Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom:
1 September 1873– July 1879 – Cetshwayo is king of the Zulu
12 April 1877 – British annexation proclamation of Transvaal Boer Republic
December 1878 – Sir Bartle Frere presents Cetshwayo with an ultimatum to disband the Zulu army and accept a British resident
January 1879 – British force under Lieutenant General Frederick Augustus Thesiger (2nd Baron Chelmsford) invades Zululand
22 January 1879 – battle of Isandlwana, first encounter of the Anglo–Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom
22–23 January 1879 – battle of Rorke’s Drift: 150 British troops under the command of Lieutenant John Chard of the Royal Engineers and Lieutenant Gonville Bromhead defeat 3,000 to 4,000 Zulu warriors
22 January–3 April 1879 – siege of Eshowe: Colonel Charles Pearson besieged at Eshowe (Fort Ekowe) for two months by the Zulus
12 March 1879 – battle of Intombe between Zulus and British soldiers defending a supply convoy
28 March 1879 – battle of Hlobane near Vryheid
29 March 1879 – battle of Kambula in which Zulus attack the British camp at Kambula: a decisive Zulu defeat and turning point of the Anglo-Zulu War
2 April 1879 – Lord Chelmsford’s attacked en route to Eshowe at Gingindlovu with Zulu defeat
3 April 1879 – lifting of the siege of Eshowe
June 1879 – second invasion of Zululand under Lord Chelmsford
July 1879 – Sir Garnet Wolseley arrives in South Africa
4 July 1879 – the battle of Ulundi (the Zulu capital), last major battle of the Anglo-Zulu War; the British defeat the Zulu and raze Ulundi
28 August 1879 – the Zulu king Cetshwayo captured and sent to Cape Town
after January 1879 – Midlothian campaign

22 January 1879 – Battle of Isandlwana, first encounter of the Anglo–Zulu War between the British Empire and the Zulu Kingdom

22–23 January 1879 – Battle of Rorke’s Drift, a battle in the Anglo-Zulu War. Around 150 British and colonial troops under the command of Lieutenant John Chard of the Royal Engineers and Lieutenant Gonville Bromhead successfully defended the mission station of Rorke’s Drift from 3,000 to 4,000 Zulu warriors

February 1879 – Oscar Wilde moves into 13 Salisbury Street, London; Wilde applies for a ticket at the British Museum on 24 February 1879

8 February 1879 – Richard Francis Burton meets Bram Stoker in Grafton Street at Irving’s house; Stoker meets Burton again on 21 February 1879 at a party at Bailey’s Hotel, South Kensington

March–July 1879 – Heinrich Schliemann’s 1879 excavations at Troy

April 1879 – Richard Francis Burton travels to Hamburg, Berlin, and Leipzig

April 1879 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife return to Trieste

1 May 1879 – publication of Samuel Butler’s Evolution, Old and New

2 May 1879 – Friedrich Nietzsche resigns his position at the University of Basel with a pension

June 1879 – Charles Darwin spends a weekend in Dorking

26 June 1879 – the British and French governments force the Ottoman Sultan Abdülhamid II to depose Ismail Pasha, the Khedive of Egypt

26 June 1879–7 January 1892 – rule of Muhammed Tewfik Pasha (or Tawfiq of Egypt), Khedive of Egypt and the Sudan

27 June 1879 – Ellen Terry plays Henrietta Maria in the debut of the play Charles I at the Lyceum Theatre

4 July 1879 – Battle of Ulundi, last major battle of the Anglo-Zulu War

August 1879 – Charles Darwin visits the Lake district with the Litchfields, and meets John Ruskin

August 1879 – Henry Irving takes a cruise to the Aegean in the steam vessel Walrus as a guest of Baroness Burdett-Coutts

c. 6 August–28 August 1879 – Engels and Carl Schorlemmer are on holiday in Eastbourne

8–20 August 1879 – Marx and Eleanor (Tussy) Marx on holiday in St. Aubin’s and St. Helier, on the Isle of Jersey

18 August 1879 – Marx’s daughter Jenny Longuet gives birth to a son, Edgar, in Ramsgate

20 August 1879 – Marx and Eleanor (Tussy) Marx leave Jersey

21 August–17 September 1879 – Marx arrived in Ramsgate to visit his daughter Jenny Marx and her new son Edgar

c. September 1879 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife visit Gratz, Baden and Vienna

17 September 1879 – Marx returns to London

October 1879 – Alfred Marshall and Mary Paley Marshall publish The Economics of Industry (Macmillan, London)

October 1879 – Edward A. Freeman tours France, visiting Pontoise, Gisors, Chaumont, Gournay, and Neuchatel

21 October 1879 – Irish National Land League founded in Castlebar, with Charles Stewart Parnell elected president

1 November 1879 – Henry Irving’s production of The Merchant of Venice opened at the Lyceum; the famous Beefsteak Room dinners at the Lyceum begin

5 December 1879 – Richard Francis Burton sails for Egypt from Trieste

December 1879–May 1880 – Richard Francis Burton in Egypt

21 December 1879 – Henrik Ibsen’s play A Doll’s House premiered at the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen, Denmark

December 1879–May 1880 – Richard Francis Burton in Egypt

1880
1880 – Francis Ysidro Edgeworth begins to be a lecturer in Logic at King’s College, London

1880–May 1881 – Alfred Russel Wallace lives in Pen-y-Bryn, St Peter’s Road, Croydon

2 January 1880 – Richard Francis Burton meets General Gordon in Cairo

14 February 1880 – famous banquet held to celebrate the 100th performance of Henry Irving’s play The Merchant of Venice

March–May 1880 – Engels published Socialism: Utopian and Scientific (1880)

31 March–27 April 1880 – United Kingdom general election of 1880:
Party | Seats Won
Liberal | 352
Conservative | 237
Home Rule | 63.
The Liberals win the election

3 April 1880 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s The Pirates of Penzance opens at at the Opera Comique

17 April 1880 – Arminius Vámbéry gives a lecture to the Royal Society of Arts in London on “Russian Influence in Central Asia”

23 April 1880–9 June 1885 – William Ewart Gladstone Prime Minister of Britain. UK Prime Ministers:
UK Prime Ministers
Liberal
23 April 1880–9 June 1885 – William Ewart Gladstone
Conservative
23 June 1885–28 January 1886 – Robert Gascoyne-Cecil (3rd Marquess of Salisbury)
Liberal
1 February 1886–20 July 1886 – William Ewart Gladstone
Conservative
25 July 1886–11 August 1892 – Robert Gascoyne-Cecil (3rd Marquess of Salisbury)
Liberal
15 August 1892–2 March 1894 – William Ewart Gladstone
5 March 1894–22 June 1895 – Archibald Primrose 5th Earl of Rosebery
Conservative
25 June 1895–11 July 1902 – Robert Gascoyne-Cecil (3rd Marquess of Salisbury)
11 July 1902–5 December 1905 – Arthur Balfour
Liberal
5 December 1905–7 April 1908 – Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman
7 April 1908–25 May 1915 – Herbert Henry Asquith.
by 11 May 1880 – Richard Francis Burton back in Trieste from Egypt

May–June 1880 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife in Monfalcone and Ober Ammergau in Bavaria

20 May 1880 – Henry Irving’s production of Iolanthe at the Lyceum

June 1880 – Charles Darwin visits Southampton

July–August 1880 – Samuel Butler in S. Ambrogio, S. Pietro in the valley of Susa, monastery of Sammichele, Paget, in the neighbourhood of Lanzo, Viu, Fucine, and Groscavallo, Faido (joined by Henry Festing Jones in August)

July 1880 – amnesty in France; Hippolyte-Prosper-Olivier Lissagaray returns to France on 4 July 1880

July 1880 – Oscar Wilde moves into 44 Tite Street, Chelsea, with Frank Miles

August 1880 – Charles Darwin visits Cambridge to visit his son Horace

September 1880 – Hall Caine first meets Dante Gabriel Rossetti in his home at Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, London

18 September 1880 – Henry Irving’s production of The Corsican Brothers opened at the Lyceum

1 October 1880–30 April 1881 – Melbourne International Exhibition (8th World’s Fair) officially recognised by the Bureau International des Expositions (BIE), held in the Royal Exhibition Building, Carlton Gardens, Melbourne

October 1880 – William Stanley Jevons decides to resign as Professor of Political Economy at University College, London

20 December 1880–23 March 1881 – First Boer War (First Anglo-Boer War/nsvaal War) between Britain and the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic); British defeated and the second independence of the South African Republic:
8 January 1806 – battle of Blaauwberg (battle of Cape Town) near Cape Town in which Britain conquers Cape Colony
13 August 1814 – Netherlands cedes Cape colony to Britain
September 1835–1840 – the Great Trek (1836–1846), eastward migration of Dutch settlers by wagon from Cape Colony into South Africa
1839–4 May 1843 – independent Natalia Republic
12 May 1843 – Britain announces intention to annex Natal
31 May 1844 – Sir George Napier (the Cape Colony governor) formally annexes Natal to the Cape Colony; colonial administration established in December 1845
1852–31 May 1902 – the South African Republic (the Transvaal) is independent
17 February 1854–28 May 1900 – independent Orange Free State
15 July 1856 – Natal becomes a separate colony of the British crown
1856–1910 – Natal a British colony
27 October 1871 – Griqualand West proclaimed British territory
1874 – British takes control of Griqualand East
11 January–4 July 1879 – Anglo-Zulu War
17 September 1879 – Griqualand East proclaimed part of Cape Colony
18 October 1880 – Griqualand West formally united with the Cape Colony
20 December 1880–23 March 1881 – First Boer War (First Anglo-Boer War/Transvaal War) between Britain and the South African Republic (Transvaal Republic)
11 October 1899–31 May 1902 – Second Boer War between Britain and South African Republic (Republic of Transvaal) and Orange Free State
28 May 1900 – British occupation of the Orange Free State
31 May 1902 – Treaty of Vereeniging ends the Second Boer War
31 May 1902–31 May 1910 – British Transvaal Colony
31 May 1910 – unification of the separate British colonies the Cape, Natal, Transvaal and Orange River colony to form the Union of South Africa
11 December 1931 – Union of South Africa becomes a sovereign dominion of the British Empire
31 May 1961 – South Africa becomes Republic and leaves the Commonwealth
1880s–1890s – the London season runs from after Christmas to c. late June; this coincides with sitting of Parliament

1880s
1881
1881–1884 – Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire in Ukraine and Poland)

1881–April 1882 – Hall Caine lives with Dante Gabriel Rossetti in his home at Cheyne Walk, Chelsea, London, and Caine acts as Rossetti’s secretary

January–June 1881 – Edward A. Freeman visits France, Italy, Ionia, and Dalmatia

3 January 1881 – Henry Irving’s production of Tennyson’s The Cup opened at the Lyceum; William Ewart Gladstone attends

24 January 1881 – William Ewart Gladstone introduced a Coercion Bill in the House of Commons, to deal with the Irish National Land League, with royal assent in March 1881

February 1881 – Charles Darwin visits London, and meets the Duke of Argyll

February 1881 – Samuel Butler at Shrewsbury; Butler has financial difficulties

13 March 1881 – death of Alexander II of Russia

13 March 1881–1 November 1894 – reign of Alexander III of Russia

19 April 1881 – death of Benjamin Disraeli

23 April 1881 – Major E. C. Johnson arrives in Athens, and later travels to Istanbul, Varna, Bucharest, Mehadia, Orsova, the Danube, Szegedin, Budapest, Aiud (Nagyenyed / Nagy-Enyéd), Târgu Mureș (Marosvásárhely), Brâncovenești (Vécs), Reghin (Szászrégen), Vécs, Beclean (Bethlen), Deés, Puszta, Cluj-Napoca (Klausenburg / Kolozsvár), Budapest

23 April 1881 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s Patience first performed at the Opera Comique, London; the play moved to the famous Savoy Theatre on 10 October 1881

26 April 1881 – the Kiev pogrom of 1881 in Russia

28 April 1881 – Billy the Kid (born Henry McCarty, but known as William H. Bonney) escapes from jail in Mesilla, New Mexico, United States, after being convicted of the murder of Lincoln County Sheriff William J. Brady

May 1881 – William Stanley Jevons resigns as Professor of Political Economy at University College, London

May 1881–June 1889 – Alfred Russel Wallace lives at Nutwood Cottage which he had built at Godalming, Surrey

2 and 9 May 1881 – revival of Othello at the Lyceum

June 1881 – Charles Darwin visits the Lake district with his wife Emma and the Litchfields

7 June 1881 – first meeting of the Social Democratic Federation (SDF), first socialist political party in Britain, organised by H. M. Hyndman, and whose members included William Morris, George Lansbury and Eleanor Marx

18 June 1881 – the Three Emperors’ Alliance (June 1881–1887) between the German Empire, Russia, and Austria-Hungary is revived

July 1881 – Eleanor Marx decides to become an actress

14 July 1881 – Billy the Kid (born Henry McCarty, but known as William H. Bonney) shot and killed by Sheriff Pat Garrett in Fort Sumner, New Mexico, United States

August 1881 – Charles Darwin visits London to sit for an oil painting

August–September 1881 – Marx and his wife visit Argenteuil near Paris

3 August 1881 – Charles Darwin dines with the Prince of Wales and the Crown Prince of Germany in London; Charles Bradlaugh ejected from the House of Commons

16 August 1881 – Marx gets a letter about his daughter Tussy’s break down, and returns to London

26 August 1881 – death of Erasmus “Eras” Darwin, Charles Darwin’s brother

1 September 1881 – funeral of Erasmus “Eras” Darwin at Downe churchyard

28 September 1881 – Charles Darwin has lunch with Ludwig Büchner and Edward Aveling at Down House

c. October 1881–August 1882 – Alfred Marshall and his wife Mary Marshall travel to Sicily, and visit Palermo, Florence, and Venice

October 1881 – Marx’s wife bedridden for weeks

7 October 1881–15 April 1882 – Edward A. Freeman visits America

10 October 1881 – the famous Savoy Theatre opened

November 1881 – Samuel Butler, Henry Festing Jones and Reginald Worsley travel to Midhurst, Pulborough, and Littlehampton

22 November 1881 – publication of Samuel Butler’s Alps and Sanctuaries of Piedmont and the Canton Ticino

December 1881 – Charles Darwin visits London

2 December 1881 – Marx’s wife Jenny dies

5 December 1881 – Jenny Marx buried at Highgate cemetery

29 December 1881 – Marx and Tussy go to Ventnor on the Isle of Wight.

1882
1882–1883 – Heinrich Schliemann’s excavation at Troy

January 1882 – Samuel Butler and Henry Festing Jones go to Kingsdown (near Walmer) and Boulogne (to late January); Butler goes there nearly every Christmas until 1901

2 January 1882 – Oscar Wilde arrives in America

2 January 1882–6 January 1883 – Oscar Wilde arrives in America

January 1882 – Eleanor Marx ends her engagement to Hippolyte-Prosper-Olivier Lissagaray

February 1882 – Marx goes to Argenteuil with Eleanor Marx to see his daughter Jenny

15 February–late May 1882 – the voyage of the ship the Dunedin, which sails from Port Chalmers, Dunedin to London with refrigerated lamb and mutton; the first successful frozen meat shipment from New Zealand

20 February 1882 – Marx arrives in Algiers and spent 3 months there, with stopovers in Argenteuil and Marseille on the way

2 March 1882 – the Austro-Hungarian government issues a deportation notice to Arthur Evans in Dubrovnik, accusing him of being a spy

7 March 1882 – Charles Darwin has a heart seizure

7 March 1882 – Arthur Evans arrested in the port of Dubrovnik

7 March–23 April 1882 – Arthur Evans jailed at the prison at Ragusa (Dubrovnik), Dalmatia, by Austria-Hungary

8 March 1882 – début of Henry Irving’s production of Romeo and Juliet at the Lyceum, with Ellen Terry as Juliet

27 March 1882 – the Egypt Exploration Society (EES) founded by Amelia Edwards and Reginald Stuart Poole at a meeting held in the British Museum; its purpose is to excavate Egypt and Sudan

9 April 1882 – death of Dante Gabriel Rossetti

19 April 1882 – death of Charles Darwin

26 April 1882 – state funeral of Charles Darwin at Westminster Abbey

early May 1882 – Marx leaves Algiers for France via Monte Carlo

26 May–29 August 1882 – beginning of the second Bayreuth Festival with Richard Wagner’s play Parsifal

summer 1882 – Marx in Artenteuil

June–13 September 1882 – the Anglo-Egyptian War between Egyptian forces under Ahmed ‘Urabi (or Ahmad Arabi) and the UK:
20 May 1882 – British and French warships arrive near Alexandria
11 June 1882 – anti-Christian riot in Alexandria kills 50 Europeans
11–13 July 1882 – British fleet bombards Alexandria and occupies the city
3 August 1882 – British army of 40,000 led by Garnet Wolseley invades the Suez Canal Zone
5 August 1882 – battle of Kafr El Dawwar between an Egyptian army and British forces headed by Sir Archibald Alison
8 August 1882 – troops from India and England arrive for weeks at Suez
15 August 1882 – Sir Garnet Wolseley arrives at Alexandria
20 August 1882 – British occupy Ismailia
13 September 1882 – Battle of Tell El Kebir (at the western end of Wadi Tumilat): Sir Garnet Wolseley attacks Egyptian forces at night near Tell El Kebir; Arabi flees to Cairo
14 September 1882 – British forces capture Cairo
15 September 1882 – Garnet Wolseley enters Cairo
October 1882 – British army begins to leave for England
June 1882 – Arthur Conan Doyle sets up a medical practice at 1 Bush Villas in Elm Grove, Southsea, Portsmouth

30 June 1882 – Eleanor Marx attends the annual celebration of the Browning Society at University College London

July 1882–mid-August – Eleanor Marx goes to Artenteuil

31 July 1882 – Sigmund Freud begins clinical training at the General Hospital of Vienna

August–September 1882 – Samuel Butler goes to Paris, Turin, S. Pietro in the valley of Susa, near Turin; he sketches the Sanctuary of Sammichele; Aosta (September), Milan, Arona, Varese, Bergamo, Verona; he is joined by Henry Festing Jones from Aosta to Bergamo

August 1882 – Marx then went from Artenteuil to Vevey in Switzerland, then returning to London

August 1882 – Friedrich Nietzsche publishes The Gay Science

13 August 1882 – death of William Stanley Jevons whilst bathing near Hastings

15 August 1882 – John Neville Keynes marries Florence Ada Brown

13 September 1882 – Battle of Tell El Kebir (at the western end of Wadi Tumilat): Sir Garnet Wolseley attacks Egyptian forces at night near Tell El Kebir; Arabi flees to Cairo

14 September 1882 – British forces capture Cairo: British conquer Egypt

14 September 1882 – Bram Stoker attempts to save a man attempting suicide while on a Thames ferry

20 September 1882 – Rudyard Kipling sails for India

October 1882 – Marx returns to London

11 October 1882 – début of Henry Irving’s production of Much Ado about Nothing at the Lyceum; production continues until June 1883

11 October 1882 – Eleanor Marx goes to the Lyceum to see Henry Irving’s production of Much Ado about Nothing

18 October 1882–9 March 1889 – Rudyard Kipling in India; from March to October 1889, he visits Japan and America:
1883–1889 – Kipling works for the Civil and Military Gazette newspaper in Lahore and The Pioneer in Allahabad
summer 1883 – Kipling visits Shimla (Simla), the summer capital of British India; he does so annually from 1885 to 1888
1888 – Kipling publishes the story collection The Phantom ’Rickshaw and Other Tales
November 1882–January 1883 – Marx goes to Ventnor on the Isle of Wight

11 November 1882 – John Neville Keynes and Florence Ada Brown move into 6 Harvey Road, Cambridge

1883
1883 – Francis Galton publishes Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development

1883–1884 – Alfred Marshall is Economics lecturer at Balliol College, Oxford

1883 – Carl Menger publishes Untersuchungen über die Methode der Sozialwissenschaften und der politischen Oekonomie insbesondere (Investigations into the Method of the Social Sciences with Special Reference to Economics)

1883–1891 – Friedrich Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra: A Book for All and None (Also sprach Zarathustra: Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen) is published

c. 22 January 1883–1890 – William Larnach returns to politics, winning the Peninsula electorate, Dunedin, New Zealand

January 1883 – Arthur Evans and his wife Margaret move back to Oxford

6 January 1883 – Oscar Wilde arrives in Liverpool from his American tour

11 January 1883 – Marx’s daughter Jenny dies

11 January 1883 – Marx informed of the death of his daughter Jenny from cancer on Marx and returned to London

13 January 1883 – Marx returns to London from Ventnor?

13 February 1883 – death of Wilhelm Richard Wagner

February–mid-May 1883 – Oscar Wilde in Paris

spring 1883 – Arthur Evans and his wife Margaret Freeman travel to Greece and the Balkans, visiting Delphi, Arachova, Orchomenos, Athens, and Mycenae

14 March 1883 – Marx dies in London of bronchitis and pleurisy

17 March 1883 – Marx buried at Highgate cemetery, with 11 in attendance

21 March 1883 – death of Harry Longuet, grandson of Marx, who was buried at Highgate cemetery

27 March 1883 – death of John Brown, the Scottish personal servant and favourite of Queen Victoria

9 May 1883–10 September 1900 – Paul Kruger is president of the South African Republic (Transvaal)

24 May 1883 – Eleanor Marx meets Beatrice Potter (later Beatrice Webb) in the Reading Room of the British Museum; Eleanor frequents the Reading Room

May 1883 – Eleanor Marx publishes an article on the life of Marx in Progress magazine

9 May 1883–10 September 1900 – Paul Kruger is president of the South African Republic (Transvaal)

June 1883 – Eleanor Marx publishes “Karl Marx II,” Progress (June): 362–366

5 June 1883 – birth of John Maynard Keynes at 6 Harvey Road in Cambridge

15 June 1883 – Henry Irving’s production of Robert Macaire at the Lyceum

August 1883 – publication of Friedrich Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra I

August 1883 – Samuel Butler travels to Honfleur, Caen, Bayeux, Mont St. Michel, Lisieux, and returns by sea from Havre to London

26–27 August 1883 – the famous 1883 eruption of Krakatoa in the Dutch East Indies

September 1883 – Eleanor Marx goes on a holiday to Eastbourne with Engels and Helene “Lenchen” Demuth; after her return to London the Marx family home at 41 Maitland Park Road (44 Maitland Street) is vacated and Eleanor moves into 122 Great Coram Street, Bloomsbury

September 1883–6 May 1907 – Evelyn Baring (1st Earl of Cromer) is 1st Consul-General of Egypt

October 1883 – socialist debating group that would become the Fabian Society formed in London

7 October 1883 – official Royal Ball of Inauguration at Peleș Castle near Sinaia, in Prahova County, Romania, of King Carol I

11 October 1883 – Henry Irving leaves Britain for his American tour

October 1883–April 1884 – Henry Irving’s first American tour:
21 October 1883 – Henry Irving’s press conference in the saloon of the Yosemite with Ellen Terry in New York harbour
29 October 1883 – Henry Irving’s American theatrical tour opens in New York with The Bells
26 November 1883 – Henry Irving’s American tour opens in Philadelphia
20 March 1884 – Henry Irving and Bram Stoker meet Walt Whitman
Washington, Baltimore, Toronto, Niagara Falls, Chicago, Boston
March 1884 – New York
29 October 1883 – Henry Irving’s American theatrical tour begins in New York

14 November 1883 – publication of Robert Louis Stevenson’s Treasure Island

26 November 1883 – Henry Irving’s American tour opens in Philadelphia

winter 1883–1884 – Édouard Naville excavates Tell El Maskhuta in Egypt

1884
1884 – Carl Menger publishes Die Irrthümer des Historismus in der deutschen Nationalökonomie (The Errors of Historicism in German Economics)

1884 – publication of Friedrich Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra II

1884 – Joseph Hatton publishes the book Henry Irving’s Impressions of America

4 January 1884 – Fabian Society was founded in London

February 1884 – Edward Augustus Freeman (father-in-law of Arthur Evans) is appointed Regius Professor of Modern History at Oxford (1884–1892)

March 1884 – demonstration at Highgate Cemetery to commemorate the death of Marx

20 March 1884 – Henry Irving and Bram Stoker meet Walt Whitman

April 1884 – Henry Irving returns to Britain

10 April 1884 – publication of Friedrich Nietzsche’s Thus Spoke Zarathustra III

29 May 1884 – marriage of Oscar Wilde and Constance Lloyd

31 May–5 July 1884 – the comedy Much Ado About Nothing is played at the Lyceum theatre with Henry Irving and Ellen Terry

summer 1884–1887 – Theodore Roosevelt owns Elkhorn Ranch near the Little Missouri River, North Dakota

June 1884 – discovery of the main Witwatersrand gold reef on the farm Vogelstruisfontein by Jan Gerritse Bantjes triggers the Witwatersrand Gold Rush

June 1884 – Eleanor Marx and Edward Aveling (1849–1898) decide to move in together

June 1884–1908 – Arthur Evans Keeper of the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford

July 1884 – Aveling and Eleanor join the launch of the Westminster branch of the Social Democratic Federation

July 1884 – International Health Exhibition Conference, London, at which Francis Galton sets up his anthropometric laboratory

8 July 1884 – opening of the play Twelfth Night; Or What You Will at the Lyceum theatre

8 July 1884 – Aveling and Eleanor leave for a honeymoon in Middleton, Derbyshire

18 July 1884 – Eleanor Marx and Edward Aveling move into 55 Great Russell Street

August 1884 – Aveling and Eleanor elected to the Executive Council of the Social Democratic Federation (SDF)

c. August–September 1884 – Samuel Butler travels to Switzerland, Le Prese, Poschiavo, St. Moritz, Maloja pass, Promontogno in the Val Bregaglia, and Soglio

30 September 1884–April 1885 – Henry Irving’s second American tour:
30 September 1884 – Henry Irving’s second tour begins at the Opera House, Quebec
4 April 1885 – Henry Irving’s tour ends at the Star Theatre, New York
October 1884 – Friedrich Engels first published Der Ursprung der Familie, des Privateigenthums und des Staats (The Origin of the Family, Private Property, and the State)

October 1884 – Laura Marx visits Eleanor

15 October 1884 – Edward Augustus Freeman delivers his inaugural lecture as Professor at Oxford

November 1884 – William Matthew Flinders Petrie arrives in Egypt to excavate Tanis

6 November 1884 – death of Henry Fawcett (26 August 1833–6 November 1884), Professor of Political Economy at Cambridge

late November 1884 – the showman Tom Norman begins exhibiting Joseph Merrick (the Elephant man) at 123 Whitechapel Road; the doctor Frederick Treves sees Merrick

2 December 1884 – the doctor Frederick Treves presents Joseph Merrick (the Elephant man) to the Pathological Society of London at 53 Berners Street, Bloomsbury

27 December 1884 – split in the Social Democratic Federation; William Morris, Belfort Bax, Eleanor Marx, and Edward Aveling resign and form the Socialist League on 29 December 1884, funded by William Morris

December 1884 – John Ruskin leaves Slade Professorship of Fine Arts in protest at vivisection in Oxford; resigns March 1885

1885
1885–1886 – Édouard Naville excavates in the Wadi Tumilat in Egypt

January 1885 – Alfred Marshall returns to Cambridge University as Professor of Economics

January 1885 – Socialist League starts its newspaper the Commonweal

26 January 1885 – defeat of General Gordon at the fall of Khartoum

18 February 1885 – Mark Twain published The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn

22 February 1885 – death of Eliza Mary Ann Savage, friend of Samuel Butler

24 February 1885 – Alfred Marshall gives his inaugural lecture on the “The Present Position of Economics” at Cambridge

4 March 1885 – Walter Pater’s philosophical novel Marius the Epicurean is published

14 March 1885 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s The Mikado; or, The Town of Titipu opens at the Savoy Theatre

April 1885 – Arminius Vámbéry on a lecture tour in Britain

April 1885 – Henry Irving returns to Britain from his second American tour

18 April–5 June 1885 – Flinders Petrie excavates Naukratis in Egypt

9 June 1885 – William Gladstone leaves office as Prime Minister of Britain

23 June 1885–28 January 1886 – Marquess of Salisbury is prime Minister of Britain

June 1885 – Eleanor Marx starts to become disenchanted with Edward Aveling

July 1885 – Friedrich Engels publishes volume 2 of Das Kapital in German

July 1885 – the famous Victorian actor Henry Irving and Bram Stoker visit Nuremburg in preparation for the production of Faust

August 1885 – Walter Pater moves to London to 12 Earls Terrace, Kensington from Oxford

August–October 1885 – Samuel Butler travels to San Bernardino, Bellinzona, Arona, Varallo-Sesia, Sacro Monte (Varese, where he was joined by Henry Festing Jones), Milan, Vicenza, Venice; Butler returns via Basel

September 1885 – Sir H. Rider Haggard’s King Solomon’s Mines is published

12 September 1885 – Richard Francis Burton publishes 10 volumes of The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night (1885–1888; though the Kama Shastra Society), a translation of the Arabian Nights

18 September 1885 – unification of Bulgaria

21 September 1885 – Eleanor Marx in court over political meeting at Dod Street

October 1885–March 1886 – Freud in Paris to study at the Salpêtrière hospital with Jean-Martin Charcot

28 October 1885 – William Matthew Flinders Petrie gives a lecture on Naukratis at the Annual General Meeting of the Egypt Exploration Fund

7–29 November 1885 – Third Anglo-Burmese War

14–28 November 1885 – Serbo-Bulgarian War

19 December 1885 – opening night of the first run of Faust at the Lyceum theatre of Henry Irving; production runs from 19 December 1885 to 31 July 1886

26 December 1885 – Eleanor Marx organises a charity Christmas for 200 children

28 December 1885 – Bram Stoker delivers his lecture “Personal Impressions of America” at the London Institution, Finsbury Circus London

1886
1886 – Friedrich Nietzsche first published Beyond Good and Evil: Prelude to a Philosophy in Leipzig

1886 – Flinders Petrie excavates Tell Nebesheh in the Eastern Nile Delta for the Egypt Exploration Fund

1886 – the Witwatersrand Gold Rush in South Africa

1886 – Johannesburg established after the discovery of gold

1886–1889 – Édouard Naville excavates Bubastis

1 January 1886 – Britain annexed Upper Burma by Lord Randolph Churchill

January 1886 – Eleanor Marx Aveling publishes “The Woman Question: From a Socialist Point of View” (Westminister Review 125: 207–222)

5 January 1886 – publication of the Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde by Robert Louis Stevenson

1 February 1886–20 July 1886 – William Gladstone is Prime Minister of Britain

March 1886–9 November 1888 – Sir Charles Warren (1840–1927) is Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis, the head of the London Metropolitan Police

April 1886 – Sigmund Freud’s private medical practice opens

9 April 1886 – Joseph Chamberlain speaks to a group of Liberal Unionists opposing the Irish Home Rule Bill. The Liberal Unionist Association arises from this meeting

May 1886 – Heinrich Schliemann and William Dörpfeld visit Knossos

1 May 1886 – American workers demonstrate for an 8 hour day

4 May 1886 – opening of the Colonial and Indian Exhibition of 1886 held in South Kensington in London; this was attended by Julius von Haast

summer 1886 – Edward Augustus Freeman stays at Exmouth from bad health

24 June 1886 – arrival of Joseph Merrick at Liverpool Street Station from Belgium

9 July 1886 – Richard Francis Burton and his wife attend supper in the Beefsteak Room in the Lyceum with Henry Irving and Bram Stoker after the play Faust

25 July 1886–11 August 1892 – Marquess of Salisbury is prime Minister of Britain:
Secretary of State for the Home Department (Home Secretary)
6 February 1886–25 July 1886 – Hugh Childers
3 August 1886–15 August 1892 – Henry Matthews
Chancellors of the Exchequer
6 February–20 July 1886 – Sir William Vernon Harcourt
3 August 1886–22 December 1886 – Lord Randolph Churchill
14 January 1887–11 August 1892 – George Goschen
18 August 1892–21 June 1895 – Sir William Vernon Harcourt
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
6 February–3 August 1886 – Archibald Primrose (5th Earl of Rosebery)
3 August 1886–12 January 1887 – Stafford Northcote (1st Earl of Iddesleigh)
14 January 1887–11 August 1892 – Robert Gascoyne-Cecil (Marquess of Salisbury)
Secretary of State for the Colonies
6 February–20 July 1886 – Earl Granville
3 August 1886–14 January 1887 – Edward Stanhope
14 January 1887–11 August 1892 – Lord Knutsford
18 August 1892–21 June 1895 – George Robinson (Marquess of Ripon)
Secretary of State for War
6 February–20 July 1886 – Henry Campbell-Bannerman
3 August 1886–14 January 1887 – W. H. Smith
14 January 1887–11 August 1892 – Edward Stanhope
18 August 1892–21 June 1895 – Henry Campbell-Bannerman
Commander-in-Chief of the Forces
5 July 1856–1 November 1895 – Prince George (Duke of Cambridge)
Leader of the House of Commons
3 August 1886–14 January 1887 – Lord Randolph Churchill
17 January 1887–October 1891 – W. H. Smith
October 1891–11 August 1892 – Arthur Balfour
First Lord of the Admiralty
9 August 1886–11 August 1892 – Lord George Francis Hamilton
First Naval Lords
9 August 1886–24 October 1889 – Sir Arthur Hood
24 October 1889–28 September 1891 – Sir Richard Hamilton
28 September 1891–1 November 1893 – Sir Anthony Hoskins
Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis
30 March 1886–9 November 1888 – General Sir Charles Warren
November 1888–1890 – James Monro
25 July 1886 – performance of Tristan und Isolde (Tristan and Isolde) at Bayreuth

31 July 1886 – end of first run of Faust at the Lyceum theatre

4 August 1886 – publication of Friedrich Nietzsche’s Beyond Good and Evil

c. 14 August–September 1886 – Samuel Butler travels to Canton Ticino, Faido, Sacro Monte (Varese; in September where he was joined by Henry Festing Jones), Castiglione d’Olona, Mendrisio, Lignornetto, and Basel

31 August 1886 – Aveling and Eleanor Marx leave Liverpool for an American trip

9 September 1886 – Aveling and Eleanor Marx arrive in New York

11 September 1886 – beginning of second run of Henry Irving’s Faust at the Lyceum theatre; productions runs from
11 September to 22 April 1887

2 October 1886 – Aveling and Eleanor set out from New York on a 3 month speaking tour

28 October 1886 – statue of liberty unveiled

31 October 1886 – new edition of Friedrich Nietzsche’s book The Birth of Tragedy, or: Hellenism and Pessimism (Die Geburt der Tragödie, Oder: Griechentum und Pessimismus), with a new preface called “An Attempt at Self-Criticism”

14 December 1886–6 April 1887 – Edward Augustus Freeman visits Sicily

20 December 1886 – Lord Randolph Churchill resigns as Chancellor of the Exchequer of the Tory government of Lord Salisbury

25 December 1886 – Aveling and Eleanor depart from New York

29 December 1886 – death of Samuel Butler’s father Thomas Butler; his inheritance ends Butler’s financial difficulties

1887
1887–1888 – the British Royal Commission on the Values of Gold and Silver

1887 – Édouard Naville excavates Tell el-Yahudiyeh and Saft el-Hinna

4 January 1887 – Aveling and Eleanor arrive in Liverpool from New York; they stay with Engels and move to 65 Chancery Lane

22 January 1887 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s play Ruddigore; or, The Witch’s Curse opens at the Savoy Theatre

January 1887 – Friedrich Engels publishes an English translation of volume 1 of Das Kapital from the 1883 German third edition, translated by Samuel Moore and Edward Aveling (who had become the partner of Marx’s daughter Eleanor “Tussy” Marx in 1884)

March–April 1887 – Charles Stewart Parnell involved in the Pigott forgeries in The Times

March 1887 – Alfred Marshall publishes the “Remedies for Fluctuations in General Prices” in Contemporary Review

April 1887 – Samuel Butler travels to Ypres

22 April 1887 – end of second run of Henry Irving’s Faust

30 May 1887 – Aveling and Eleanor resign from the Socialist League

spring – Aveling and Eleanor move to Dodwell, Warwickshire

1 June 1887 – Henry Irving’s production of Werner at the Lyceum

18 June 1887 – Reinsurance Treaty signed, between Germany and Russia, organised by Otto von Bismarck after the German-Austrian-Russian League of the Three Emperors collapsed

20 June 1887 – the Golden Jubilee of Queen Victoria was celebrated, to mark the 50th anniversary of her accession

24 June 1887 – publication of a new edition of Friedrich Nietzsche’s The Gay Science

August–September 1887 – Samuel Butler in Varallo, Milan, Bergamo, Lago d’Iseo, Lovere, Ponte della Selva, Bergamo, Lecco, Colico, Chiavenna

16 August 1887 – death of Julius von Haast in Christchurch, New Zealand

October 1887 – Eleanor Marx returns to London from Dodwell

November 1887 – Tsar Alexander III visited Berlin

7 November 1887–26 March 1888 – Henry Irving’s third north American theatrical tour begins in New York:
7 November 1887–10 December 1887 – New York
12–23 December 1887 – Philadelphia
26 December 1887–21 January 1888 – Chicago
23 January 1888–18 February 1888 – Boston
20 February 1888–24 March 1888 – New York
8 November 1887 – government bans meetings in Trafalgar square

13 November 1887 – Bloody Sunday; demonstration towards Trafalgar square with Eleanor Marx and Aveling broken up by military and police

16 November 1887 – publication of Friedrich Nietzsche’s On the Genealogy of Morals

December 1887 – publication of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s novel A Study in Scarlet in Beeton’s Christmas Annual 1887 in which Sherlock Holmes appears for the first time; first published as a book in July 1888

December 1887–January 1888 – Samuel Butler in Boulogne, Basel, Luino, Varallo, Milan

1888
1888 – Kipling publishes the story collection The Phantom ’Rickshaw and Other Tales, with the short story “The Man who would be King”

1888–1890 – Heinrich Schliemann’s last excavation at Troy

1888 – Francis Ysidro Edgeworth appointed as Tooke Professor of Political Economy, King’s College, London (1888–1891)

1888–12 March 1899 – Julius Vogel lives in England

16 January 1888 – Alfred Marshall appears before the British “Royal Commission on the Value of Gold and Silver” (instituted in 1887) and questioned about the economic conditions of the 1870s and 1880s in Britain

9 February 1888 – Frederick III, soon to become German emperor, underwent a tracheotomy for throat cancer

9 March 1888 – the death of the German Emperor Wilhelm I (king of Prussia from 2 January 1861)

9 March 1888–15 June 1888 – reign of the German Emperor Frederick III

11 March–14 March 1888 – the Great Blizzard of 1888 on the eastern coast of the United States of America

26 March 1888 – Henry Irving sailed for England after the end of his third north American theatrical tour

8 April–10 December 1888 – the 1888 Barcelona Universal Exposition, held in the Parc de la Ciutadella, Barcelona

14 April 1888 – revival of Faust at the Lyceum theatre

15 April 1888 – death of Matthew Arnold

17 April 1888–December 1892 – Winston Churchill was sent to Harrow School

April 1888 – Beatrice Potter (later Webb) works in an East End tailoring sweatshop

15 June 1888 – Wilhelm II becomes German Emperor

summer – Eleanor Marx in Dodwell, Warwickshire

23 July 1888 – performance of Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (The Mastersingers of Nuremberg) at Bayreuth

August–September 1888 – Samuel Butler in Dinant, Namur, Varallo, Bergamo, Verona, Padua, Venice, Bologna, Parma, Milan, Varallo, Crevacuore

4 August 1888 – opening of the play Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde at the Lyceum Theatre with the actor Richard Mansfield

9 August 1888 – Engels leaves for New York, with Aveling and Eleanor; they travel to Albany, Boston, Niagara falls, lake Ontario, Toronto, Montreal

August–September 1888 – Engels in America

30 August 1888 – the Chinese Immigrants Act Amendment Act 1888 passed by the New Zealand government

31 August–9 November 1888 – period of the infamous Jack the Ripper murders:
March 1886–9 November 1888 – General Sir Charles Warren (7 February 1840 – 21 January 1927) is Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis
15 June 1886–1891 – Isaac Abrahams (c. 1851–1 July 1920), brother of Aaron Kozminski, lives at 74 Greenfield Street
1888
7 August 1888 – Martha Tabram murdered
31 August 1888 – Friday, murder of Mary Ann “Polly” Nichols in Buck’s Row, Whitechapel
c. 31 August 1888 – Frederick Abberline sent back to Whitechapel and in charge of detectives investigating the Ripper murders
1 September–6 October 1888 – Dr. Robert Anderson (Assistant Commissioner of the Metropolitan Police and Chief of the Criminal Investigation Department CID) in charge of the investigation into the Whitechapel Murders
8 September 1888 – Saturday, murder of Annie Chapman in 29 Hanbury Street in Spitalfields, London
8 September–6 October 1888 – Sir Robert Anderson in Switzerland
6 October 1888–1892 – Sir Robert Anderson in charge of Whitechapel investigation
30 September 1888 – Saturday, murder of Elizabeth “Long Liz” Stride in Dutfield’s Yard at Berner Street, Whitechapel
30 September 1888 – murder of Catherine “Kate” Eddowes in the south corner of Mitre Square, Whitechapel
15 October 1888 – “From Hell” letter received by George Lusk, the chairman of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee
9 November 1888 – Friday, murder of Mary Jane Kelly at 13 Miller’s Court, Dorset Street, Spitalfields, London
November 1888–1890 – James Monro is Commissioner of Police of the Metropolis
1889
December 1889 – Aaron Kozminski stopped for walking a dog without a muzzle
15 December 1889 – Aaron Kozminski appears in City Summons Court to answer for the charge
7 March 1890 – Convalescent Police Seaside Home (The Seaside Home) in Hove (51 Clarendon Villas, West Brighton) opened
12 July 1890 – Aaron Kozminski admitted to Mile End, Old Town Workhouse, and possibly identified at this time (as in Swanson marginalia)
16 July 1890 – Aaron Kozminski discharged to 16 Greenfield St
4 February 1891 – Aaron Kozminski readmitted to Mile End, Old Town Workhouse
7 February 1891 – Aaron Kozminski discharged to Middlesex Country Lunatic Asylum, Colney Hatch
August 1888–1901 – Sir Robert Anderson (1841–1918) is Assistant Commissioner of the London Metropolitan Police

19 September 1888 – Engels, Aveling and Eleanor return to England

29 September 1888 – closing of the play Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde at the Lyceum Theatre in the wake of Jack the Ripper murders

30 September 1888 – Saturday, murder of Elizabeth “Long Liz” Stride in Dutfield’s Yard at Berner Street, Whitechapel and of Catherine “Kate” Eddowes in the south corner of Mitre Square, Whitechapel

29 September 1888–12 June 1891 – Mahatma Gandhi studied law and jurisprudence in London at the Inner Temple

3 October 1888 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s play The Yeomen of the Guard opens at the Savoy Theatre

15 October 1888 – “From Hell” letter received by George Lusk, the chairman of the Whitechapel Vigilance Committee

30 October 1888 – the Rudd Concession by King Lobengula of Matabeleland (Rhodesia) giving exclusive mining rights to Cecil Rhodes

9 November 1888 – Friday, murder of Mary Jane Kelly at 13 Miller’s Court, Dorset Street, Spitalfields, London

17 November 1888–27 April 1889 – Edward Augustus Freeman visits Sicily

29 December 1888 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of Macbeth at the Lyceum theatre

1889
1889 – Alfred Russel Wallace publishes Darwinism: An Exposition of the Theory of Natural Selection

3 January 1889 – Friedrich Nietzsche suffers a mental collapse in the streets of Turin

24 January 1889 – publication of Friedrich Nietzsche’s The Twilight of the Idols

30 January 1889 – Rudolf, Crown Prince of Austria, and his mistress Baroness Mary Vetsera commit suicide at the Mayerling hunting lodge, Vienna Woods, Austria

26 April 1889 – Henry Irving gives a command performance for the Prince of Wales and Queen Victoria at Sandringham

26 April 1889 – Arminius Vámbéry first meets Bram Stoker at Sandringham during the performance of The Bells and The Merchant of Venice for Queen Victoria

6 May–31 October 1889 – Exposition Universelle of 1889 in Paris

15 May 1889 – Eiffel Tower officially opened to the public

June 1889–December 1902 – Alfred Russel Wallace lives at Corfe View, Parkstone, Dorset

7 June 1889 – first performance of Ibsen’s play A Doll’s House at the Novelty theatre in Britain

29 June 1889 – end of Henry Irving’s production of Macbeth at the Lyceum

July–September 1889 – Samuel Butler in Basel, Volterra, Siena, Monte Oliveto (3 August), San Gimignano, Colle di Val d’Elsa, Pisa, Chivasso, Biella, Oropa, San Giovanni di Andorno, Varallo (joined by Henry Festing Jones), Oropa, Varese, Faido, Basel

July 1889 – De Beers buys the assets of Barney Barnato’s Kimberley Central Diamond Mining Company

6 July 1889 – beginning of the Cleveland Street scandal

14 July 1889 – Second International (1889–1916) founded; Second International declared May 1 to be “May Day” (International Workers’ Day); Eleanor Marx in Paris

14 August 1889–16 September – London Dock Strike

September–14 December 1889 – Silvertown strike in London

28 September 1889 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of The Dead Heart at the Lyceum theatre

5 October 1889 – Rudyard Kipling arrives back in England

October 1889–December 1890 – the 1889–1890 flu pandemic, with recurrences:
March–June 1891
November 1891–June 1892
spring 1893
winter 1893–1894
October 1889 – the Tsar Alexander III of Russia visited Wilhelm II in Berlin

late 1889 – Eleanor Marx speaks at the International Working Men’s Club (IWMC) at 40 Berner Street

November 1889 – Wilhelm II visited Franz Joseph, the Austrian Emperor

9 November 1889–May 1890 – Indian tour of Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale

26 November 1889–19 April 1890 – the New Zealand and South Seas Exhibition (a world’s fair) held in Dunedin, New Zealand

7 December 1889 – Gilbert and Sullivan’s play The Gondoliers; or, The King of Barataria opens at the Savoy Theatre

10 December 1889 – Mark Twain published A Connecticut Yankee in King Arthur’s Court in the United States

1889–1890 – Great Eastern broken up for scrap at Rock Ferry on the River Mersey by Henry Bath and Son

1890
6 February–8 May 1890 – Edward Augustus Freeman visits Sicily, Tunis and Carthage

18 March 1890 – at the request of Wilhelm II, Bismarck resigned and was replaced by General von Caprivi

11 April 1890 – death of Joseph Merrick at London Hospital

13 April 1890 – Lloyd George elected as Liberal MP for Carnarvon Boroughs

30 April 1890 – Arminius Vámbéry attends the play The Dead Heart at the Lyceum; he stays for dinner at the Beefsteak Room with Bram Stoker and Irving

30 April 1890 – Bram Stoker called to the bar of the Inner Temple

May 1890 – Friedrich Nietzsche is released into the care of his mother in Naumburg

4 May 1890 – May day demonstration in Hyde Park, London

5 May 1890 – W. S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan end their collaboration

June 1890 – Vincent van Gogh paints the oil painting The Church at Auvers

July–August 1890 – Samuel Butler in Furnes, Dinant, Namur, Basel, Goeschenen, Saas Fée, Domodossola, Varallo, Biella, Oropa, Lenno, Mendrisio, Faido, Basel, London

July 1890 – Alfred Marshall’s Principles of Economics first published

July 1890 – Oscar Wilde’s The Picture of Dorian Gray first published

July 1890 – Engels in Norway

17 July 1890–12 January 1896 – Cecil Rhodes is Prime Minister of Cape Colony:
13 March 1888 – Cecil Rhodes and C.D. Rudd launch De Beers Consolidated Mines (with Rhodes as secretary and with largest interest in the mine); Rhodes named chairman of De Beers
30 October 1888 – the Rudd Concession by King Lobengula of Matabeleland (Rhodesia) giving exclusive mining rights to Cecil Rhodes
29 January 1889 – Barney Barnato puts the Kimberley Central Diamond Mining Company into voluntary liquidation
July 1889 – De Beers buys the assets of Barney Barnato’s Kimberley Central Diamond Mining Company
1889 – Queen Victoria signs charter to allow Cecil Rhodes’ British South Africa Company (BSAC) to administer Rhodesia as a British protectorate
1889–1923 – Rhodesia under control of the British South Africa Company (and called Southern Rhodesia 1911–1964)
17 July 1890–12 January 1896 – Cecil Rhodes is Prime Minister of Cape Colony
October 1893–January 1894 – First Matabele War between the British South Africa Company and the Ndebele (Matabele) Kingdom
29 December 1895–2 January 1896 – Jameson Raid against the Transvaal by Leander Starr Jameson and his Company troops (from the British South Africa Company) and Bechuanaland policemen
March 1896–October 1897 – Second Matabele War between the British South Africa Company and Ndebele (Matabele) people
26 March 1902 – death of Cecil Rhodes at his seaside cottage in Muizenberg near Cape Town
1902 – the Rhodes Scholarships established
29 July 1890 – death of Vincent van Gogh

August 1890 – the novelist Bram Stoker takes a famous holiday at Whitby

1 August 1890 – Heinrich Schliemann returns to Athens from Troy

6 August 1890 – Aveling and Eleanor Marx set sail for Norway for a 3 week tour

20 September 1890 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of Ravenswood at the Lyceum theatre

October 1890 – Eleanor Marx travels to the Lille congress of the French Workers’ Party

October 1890 – Bertrand Russell goes up to Trinity College, Cambridge

20 October 1890 – death of Richard Francis Burton in Trieste

November 1890 – Francis Ysidro Edgeworth appointed secretary of the British Economic Association and appointed editor of the Economic Journal

November 1890 – Heinrich Schliemann returns to Halle, Germany, to have an ear operation

November 1890–1894 – William Jennings Bryan serves in the US House of Representatives for Nebraska

4 November 1890 – death of Helene “Lenchen” Demuth

17 November 1890 – Captain W. H. O’Shea obtains a decree nisi of divorce against his wife Katharine O’Shea; this ruins the political career of Parnell

26 December 1890 – death of Heinrich Schliemann in Naples

December 1890 – Thomas Henry Huxley moves to Eastbourne

December 1890–24 March 1891 – Arthur Conan Doyle studies ophthalmology in Vienna

1890s
1891
1891–1892 – Flinders Petrie excavates Amarna

January 1891 – John Neville Keynes publishes The Scope and Method of Political Economy

31 January 1891 – famous Royal English Opera House opened (renamed the Palace Theatre of Varieties in 1892)

21 February 1891 – Francis Ysidro Edgeworth appointed to the Drummond chair of Political Economy, Oxford, and chosen as a fellow of All Souls (1891–1922)

25 June 1891 – first story of Arthur Conan Doyle’s character Sherlock Holmes published in The Strand Magazine

June 1891 – first meeting of Lord Alfred Douglas (1870–1945) and Oscar Wilde

June 1891 – Mark Twain and his family move to Europe and live there until 1895; Twain lived in France, Germany, and Italy; in Berlin in winter 1891–1892; Florence in fall and winter 1892–1893; and Paris in winter and spring 1893–1894 and 1894–1895

July–October 1891 – Samuel Butler in Basel, Seelisberg, Como, Chiavenna, Bormio, Bolladore, Sondrio, Colico, Varese, Laveno, Arona, Varallo-Sesia, Casale, Certosa di Pesio, Mondovì, Turin, Varallo, Faido

22 August 1891–10 January 1892 – Rudyard Kipling visits South Africa, New Zealand (18 October–6 November), Australia, Ceylon (early December), India:
September 1891 – Rudyard Kipling visits South Africa
25 September 1891 – Rudyard Kipling sails from Cape Town for Hobart
18 October 1891 – Rudyard Kipling arrives in Wellington
3 November 1891 – Rudyard Kipling spends a day in Christchurch after his ship arrives in Lyttletown
6 November 1891 – Rudyard Kipling sails from Bluff, New Zealand for Australia
18 November 1891 – Rudyard Kipling arrives in Melbourne
25 November 1891 – Rudyard Kipling sails from Adelaide for Colombo
12 December 1891 – Rudyard Kipling crosses to India at Tuticorin
17/18 December 1891 – Rudyard Kipling reaches Lahore
10 January 1892 – Rudyard Kipling arrives in London
22 August 1891 – performance of Tannhäuser at Bayreuth

September–12 December 1891 – Henry Irving and the Lyceum company undertake a tour of the provinces

6 October 1891 – death of Charles Stewart Parnell

winter 1891–1892 – Arthur Evans and his wife Margaret visit Italy

1892
1892 – Max Nordau’s book Degeneration first published in German; English edition in 1895

1892 – John Neville Keynes becomes Secretary for Local Examinations, then member of the Council of the Senate; 1910 Registrary

5 January 1892 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of Henry VIII at the Lyceum theatre

14 January 1892 – death of Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale

18 January 1892 – Carrie Balestier and Rudyard Kipling married in London

30 January 1892 – Samuel Butler gives a lecture on “The Humour of Homer” at the Working Men’s College, Great Ormond Street, London

February–16 March 1892 – Edward Augustus Freeman in Spain

2 February 1892 – Rudyard Kipling and his wife travel to the US; visits New York, Chicago and the Rocky mountains

22 February 1892 – Oscar Wilde’s play Lady Windermere’s Fan, A Play About a Good Woman first produced at the St James’s Theatre in London

16 March 1892 – death of Edward Augustus Freeman, English historian, liberal politician and father-in-law of Arthur Evans, in Alicante, Spain

26 March 1892 – death of Walt Whitman

April 1892 – Herbert Kitchener appointed the Sirdar (Commander-in-Chief) of the Egyptian Army

20 April–c.9 June 1892 – Rudyard Kipling and his wife travel to Japan

June–September 1892 – Samuel Butler in Novara, Varallino, Varallo, Casale-Monferrato, Genoa, Pisa, Rome, Naples, Palermo (Sicily), Trapani, Monte Erice, I Runzi (4 August 1892), Palermo (from 23 August 1892), Catania, Mount Etna, Messina, Naples, Cava, Paestum, Naples, Rome (30 August 1892), Cortona, Florence, Varese (joined by Henry Festing Jones)

June 1892–29 August 1896 – Rudyard Kipling and his wife live in America

4–26 July 1892 – the 1892 United Kingdom general election; the Liberal Unionists under the leadership of Joseph Chamberlain won 46 seats. The UK Conservatives under Lord Salisbury did not win a majority, but were defeated in a vote of no confidence on 11 August 1892. William Gladstone formed a minority government in coalition with the Irish Nationalists

5–8 July 1892 – Arminius Vámbéry given a Degree at the Tercentenary of Dublin University; he gives a speech heard by Bram Stoker

23 July 1892 – marriage of Sidney Webb and Beatrice Potter

15 August 1892 – William Gladstone becomes British Prime Minister

October 1892–September 1893 – Jules Verne’s Le Château des Carpathes (The Carpathian Castle) published in English

6 October 1892 – death of Alfred Tennyson

c. October/November 1892 – the first volume of Max Nordau’s book Degeneration first published in German by Duncker; second volume after March/April 1893 (Russian translation November 1893; English edition in February 1895)

10 November 1892 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of King Lear at the Lyceum theatre

December 1892 – Winston Churchill left Harrow

1893
14–16 January 1893 – foundation conference of the Independent Labour Party

6 February 1893 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of Becket at the Lyceum theatre

February 1893 – Winston Churchill sent to a “crammer” school in London to pass entrance examination for Sandhurst

February 1893 – Oscar Wilde’s play Salome first published in French

26 February 1893 – Philadelphia and Reading Railroad goes bankrupt, which later triggers the US Panic of 1893

April 1893 – Samuel Butler in Brussels and Dinant

19 April 1893 – Oscar Wilde’s play A Woman of No Importance opens at London’s Haymarket Theatre

11 March 1893 – Arthur Evans’ wife dies

May 1893–1915 – Mahatma Gandhi in South Africa

1 May 1893–30 October 1893 – World’s Columbian Exposition, world’s fair held in Chicago in 1893

5 May 1893 – Black Friday in the US, the disastrous crash of the New York Stock Exchange; Panic of 1893

summer 1893 – Bram Stoker takes a holiday in the village of Cruden Bay

summer 1893 – Walter Pater moves back to Oxford

summer 1893 – Henry Irving and Ellen Terry take a holiday in Canada; proceed to San Fancisco

July–c. 17 October 1893 – Samuel Butler in Basel, San Gottardo, Casale, Rome, then visited cities between Rome and Naples, Sora, Arpino, Veroli, Alatri, Ferentino, Segni, Cori, Aci Reale, Siracusa, Palermo, Trapani (August), Calatafimi, Trapani, Marsala, Palermo, Aci Reale, Messina, Naples, Rome, Casale

6–13 August 1893 – the Zurich Socialist and Labour Congress, the 3rd congress of the Second International. Friedrich Engels gave a closing address; Eleanor Marx attends

16 August 1893 – death of Jean-Martin Charcot

1 September 1893 – Churchill enters Royal Military College, Sandhurst

September 1893 – Lenin moved to Saint Petersburg

4 September 1893–21 March 1894 – Henry Irving’s 4th American tour; opened in San Francisco with The Bells, and includes Chicago, Seattle, Portland, Minneapolis, Philadelphia, Washington, Boston, New York

8 September 1893 – the Government of Ireland Bill 1893 (or Second Home Rule Bill) was rejected by the House of Lords on its third reading. The Bill had been passed in the House of Commons on 1 September 1893 by 301 votes in favour to 267 against

13–29 October 1893 – Russian fleet visits French port of Toulon, a sign of the growing Franco-Russian military alliance

December 1893–February 1894 – Lord Alfred Douglas in Egypt

December 1893 – Arthur Conan Doyle’s story “The Adventure of the Final Problem” in which Sherlock Holmes dies is published in The Strand Magazine

27 December 1893 – Franco-Russian military alliance ratified

1894
1894–1896 – the Hamidian massacres of Armenians by the Turks

1894 – publication of Rudyard Kipling’s The Jungle Book

1894–1898 – William Larnach is MP for Tuapeka in New Zealand

February 1894 – Oscar Wilde’s play Salome first published in English, with illustrations by Aubrey Beardsley

2 March 1894 – William Gladstone leaves office as British Prime Minister

19 March 1894 – Arthur Evans first visits Knossos on Crete

21 March 1894 – Henry Irving and Ellen Terry return to England after their 4th American tour

14 April 1894 – revival of Faust by Henry Irving at the Lyceum

April–August 1894 – Rudyard Kipling and his wife visit England on a holiday

c. 19 April 1894 – the future Tsar Nicholas II and his uncle Grand Duke Sergei Alexandrovich travel to Coburg, Germany to attend the wedding of Ernest Louis (Grand Duke of Hesse) and Princess Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. The other guests were Queen Victoria, Kaiser Wilhelm II and his mother, the Prince of Wales, and the Duke and Duchess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

August–October 1894 – Oscar Wilde spends a summer holiday in Worthing where he writes The Importance of Being Earnest

June 1894 – Bertrand Russell graduates from Cambridge

20 July–20 September 1894 – Samuel Butler in Casale, Rome, Naples, Messina, Aci Reale, Etna, Catania, Aci Reale, Castrogiovanni, Palermo, Trapani, Mount Eryx (22 August 1894), Castelvetrano, Poggio Reale, Calatafimi, Casale, Avvocato Negri, Rosignano

20 July 1894 – performance of Lohengrin at Bayreuth

30 July 1894 – death of Walter Pater

summer 1894 – Bram Stoker takes a second holiday in the village of Cruden Bay

August 1894 – Engels on holiday in Eastbourne suffers a stroke

1 August 1894–17 April 1895 – First Sino-Japanese War between the Qing Empire of China and the Empire of Japan, over control of Korea; Japanese victory

8 August 1894 – Marquis of Salisbury in a Presidential Address of the British Association gives a lecture on evolution in the Sheldonian Theatre, Oxford

September 1894 – publication of The Green Carnation by Robert Hichens, a parody of Oscar Wilde

21 September to 8 December 1894 – provincial tour of Henry Irving; first production of Henry Irving’s A Story of Waterloo played at the Princes Theatre, Bristol, on September 21, 1894; London performance at the Garrick Theatre on 17 December 1894

October 1894 – the third volume of Das Kapital published by Engels

1 October 1894 – Bertrand Russell attends the Paris Opera to see Wagner’s Die Walküre

19 October 1894 – death of Francis Douglas (Viscount Drumlanrig) at Quantock Lodge, Bridgwater, Somerset

1 November 1894 – Tsar Alexander III dies

1 November 1894 – accession of Nicholas II of Russia (reign: 1 November 1894–15 March 1917)

26 November 1894 – marriage of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia and Alix of Hesse (Alexandra Feodorovna)

28 November 1894 – final birthday of Engels

13 December 1894 – marriage of Bertrand Russell and Alys Pearsall Smith in London

19–22 December 1894 – trial at the Cherche-Midi prison and conviction of Captain Alfred Dreyfus for allegedly sharing French military secrets to the German Embassy in Paris

25 December 1894 – Eleanor Marx has Christmas dinner with Engels and is assured she will inherit Marx’s manuscripts

December 1894 – Winston Churchill graduated from Royal Military College, Sandhurst

1895
1895–1897 – Theodore Roosevelt became president of the board of the New York City Police Commissioners for two years

January–July 1895 – H. G. Wells’s Time Machine first published

3 January 1895 – Oscar Wilde’s play An Ideal Husband opens at the Haymarket Theatre

12 January 1895 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of King Arthur at the Lyceum theatre

24 January 1895 – death of Randolph Churchill

February 1895 – Max Nordau’s book Degeneration published in an English translation by William Heinemann

4 February 1895 – début of The Importance of Being Earnest by Oscar Wilde at the St James’s Theatre

14 February 1895 – Oscar Wilde’s play The Importance of Being Earnest, A Trivial Comedy for Serious People opens at St James's Theatre in London

20 February 1895 – Winston Churchill commissioned as officer and joins the 4th Hussars, a cavalry regiment

March 1895 – Max Nordau’s book Degeneration published in a 2nd German edition

March 1895 – Aveling and Eleanor travel to Hastings for a holiday

30 March–June 1895 – Samuel Butler in Basel, Casale, Avvocato Negri, Florence, Rome, Naples, Brindisi (left for Corfu on 13 April), Corfu, Patras, Athens (from 17 April), Mycenae, Argos, Nauplia, Corinth, Athens, left Piraeus 27 April, Smyrna, Troy, Inra (3 May 1895), Smyrna (8 May), Catania, Aci Reale (13 May 1895), Palermo, Trapani, Calatafimi, Palermo, Naples, Rome, Casale, Avvocato Negri, Varallo, Basel, London (early June)

3 April 1895 – opening of the libel trial of the Marquess of Queensberry

17 April 1895 – Treaty of Shimonoseki between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire; Taiwan ceded to Japan as well as the Liaodong Peninsula (which was subsequently acquired by Russia)

23 April 1895 – Tripartite Intervention or Triple Intervention, diplomatic intervention by Russia, Germany, and France which forced Japan to withdraw from the Liaodong Peninsula

4 May 1895 – performances of The Story of Waterloo and Don Quixote at the Lyceum

25 May 1895 – announcement of Henry Irving’s knighthood

25 May 1895 – Oscar Wilde convicted and sentenced to two years hard labour

June 1895 – Engels, Laura Marx and Eleanor take a holiday in Eastbourne

21 June 1895 – Lord Rosebery resigns as British Prime Minister

25 June 1895–11 July 1902 – Marquess of Salisbury (Robert Gascoyne-Cecil) is UK Prime Minister (Tory):
Secretary of State for the Home Department (Home Secretary)
29 June 1895–12 November 1900 – Sir Matthew White Ridley, Bt
12 November 1900–11 August 1902 – Charles Ritchie
11 August 1902–5 December 1905 – Aretas Akers-Douglas
Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
29 June 1895–12 November 1900 – Robert Gascoyne-Cecil (Marquess of Salisbury)
12 November 1900–11 July 1902 – Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice (Marquess of Lansdowne)
Secretary of State for the Colonies
29 June 1895–16 September 1903 – Joseph Chamberlain
Secretary of State for War
4 July 1895–12 November 1900 – Henry Charles Keith Petty-Fitzmaurice (Marquess of Lansdowne)
12 November 1900–6 October 1903 – St John Brodrick
6 October 1903–4 December 1905 – H. O. Arnold-Forster
Governors-General and Viceroys of India
11 October 1894–6 January 1899 – Earl of Elgin
6 January 1899–18 November 1905 – Lord Curzon of Kedleston
First Lord of the Admiralty
1895–1900 – George Goschen
1900–1905 – William Palmer (Earl of Selborne)
Chancellors of the Exchequer
29 June 1895–11 August 1902 – Sir Michael Hicks Beach
11 August 1902–9 October 1903 – Charles Ritchie
Leader of the House of Commons
29 June 1895–4 December 1905 – Arthur Balfour
Commander-in-Chief of the Forces
5 July 1856–1 November 1895 – Prince George (Duke of Cambridge)
1 November 1895–3 January 1901 – Garnet Wolseley (1st Viscount Wolseley)
29 June 1895 – death of Thomas Henry Huxley

July 1895 – Mark Twain begins his around-the-world lecture tour:
July–August 1895 – Twain in north America, British Columbia, Canada
23 August 1895 – Twain sails from Vancouver
September 1895 – Fiji
15 September–31 October 1895 – Twain in Australia
5 November–13 December 1895 – Twain in New Zealand
17 December 1895–1 January 1896 – Twain in Australia
18 January–4 April 1896 – Twain in Sri Lanka, India, Mauritius
4 April 1896 – Twain sails from Colombo
May 1896 – Twain arrives in Durban
May–14 July 1896 – Twain in South Africa
31 July 1896 – Twain returns to England
1 July 1895 – Eleanor and Edward Aveling start a holiday in Orpington in Kent

13 July–7 August 1895 – the United Kingdom general election of 1895, won by the Conservatives in alliance with the Liberal Unionist Party:
Party | Leader | Elected
Conservative | Lord Salisbury | 340
Liberal Unionist | Joseph Chamberlain | 71
Liberal | Lord Rosebery | 177
Irish Parliamentary | Redmond and Dillon | 82
18 July 1895 – Henry Irving knighted at Windsor Castle

c. 21 July 1895 – Eleanor Marx learns that Frederick Lewis Demuth (1851−1929) is the son of Karl Marx

c. August 1895 – Samuel Butler in San Gottardo at Wassen, Hospenthal, Bellinzona in Switzerland

5 August 1895 – Friedrich Engels dies

10 August 1895 – funeral of Friedrich Engels

27 August 1895 – Friedrich Engels’ ashes scattered at sea off Eastbourne

16 September 1895–May 1896 – Henry Irving’s 5th American tour; opened in Montreal with Faust, and includes New Orleans, Philadelphia, Chicago

October 1895 – Bertrand Russell receives a 5-year fellowship from Trinity College, Cambridge

November 1895 – publication of Rudyard Kipling’s The Second Jungle Book

November–December 1895 – Churchill visits America and Cuba

14 December 1895 – Eleanor Marx and Edward Aveling move into a new house in Sydenham

29 December 1895–2 January 1896 – the Jameson Raid, a failed raid on Paul Kruger’s Transvaal Republic by British colonial statesman Leander Starr Jameson and his troops

1896
1896 – Édouard Naville excavates Oxyrhynchus

1896 – Franz Boas is appointed lecturer at Columbia University (lecturer and then professor from 1896–1936)

12 January 1896 – Cecil Rhodes resigns as Prime Minister of Cape Colony

13 January 1896–13 October 1898 – Sir John Gordon Sprigg is prime minister of Cape Colony

March 1896–October 1897 – Second Matabele War between the British South Africa Company and Ndebele (Matabele) people

12 March 1896–November 1899 – the Anglo-Egyptian invasion of Sudan:
12 March 1896 – the British cabinet orders an advance on Dongola
4 June 1896 – Egyptian army of 9,000 men mobilised by Kitchener
7 June 1896 – the battle of Ferkeh
July–August 1896 – cholera outbreak in the Egyptian camp kills over 900 men
September 1896 – capture of Dongola
7 August 1896 – capture of Abu Hamed
31 October 1897 – Kitchener extends the railway to Abu Hamed
January 1898 – British reinforcements under Major General William F. Gatacre arrive in Sudan
8 April 1898 – the battle of Atbara, Anglo-Egyptian forces defeat 15,000 Sudanese on the banks of the River Atbara
28 August 1898 – the final advance on Omdurman begins
2 September 1898 – battle of Omdurman between Kitchener and the army of Abdullah al-Taashi
12 July 1898 – the French reach Fashoda
18 September 1898 – Kitchener reaches Fashoda
24 November 1899 – Colonel Sir Reginald Wingate defeats the Khalifah and his 5,000 followers southwest of Kosti
April–May 1896 – Samuel Butler in Basel, Casale, Florence, Cortona, Rome, Frosinone, Naples, Pompeii, Salerno, Roggio, Etna, Messina, Aci Reale, Siracusa, Catania, Palermo, Calatafimi, Messina, Reggio, Salerno, Rome, Pisa, Genoa, Casale-Monferrato, Lucerne, Lugano, Porlezza, San Salvatore, Luino, Locarno, Lucerno, Basel

6–15 April 1896 – the 1896 Summer Olympics, the first international Olympic Games held in modern history, organised by the International Olympic Committee (IOC), held in Athens, Greece

May 1896 – Henry Irving returns to England from his 5th American tour

26 May 1896 – Tsar Nicholas II’s formal coronation in Uspensky Cathedral within the Kremlin

8 June 1896 – Eleanor Marx, Edward Aveling and Karl Liebknecht (1871–1919) visit Marx’s old houses in London

July 1896 – Mark Twain sails back to England from his world tour

July 1896 – Bram Stoker takes a holiday in the village of Cruden Bay

7–11 July 1896 – US Democratic National Convention of 1896, held at the Chicago Coliseum

9 July 1896 – William Jennings Bryan delivered his “Cross of Gold” speech at the US Democratic National Convention in Chicago

26 July–1 August 1896 – International Socialist Workers and Trade Union Congress, held in London, the 4th congress of the Second International

16 August 1896 – gold was discovered in the Klondike region of the Yukon in north-western Canada by local miners

August 1896–1899 – the Klondike Gold Rush, a migration of about 100,000 prospectors to the Klondike region of the Yukon in north-western Canada after gold was discovered there by local miners on 16 August 1896; when the news reached Seattle and San Francisco in 1897, there was a gold stampede from 1897–1898

29 August 1896 – Rudyard Kipling and his wife return to England from the US

September 1896 – Samuel Butler and Henry Festing Jones in Wassen and Basel

22 September 1896 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of Cymbeline at the Lyceum theatre

1 October 1896 – Winston Churchill arrives in Bombay, India and travels with his regiment to Bangalore

3 November 1896 – United States presidential election of 1896; William McKinley (Republican candidate) defeated William Jennings Bryan (Democrat candidate)

19 December 1896 – opening night of Henry Irving’s Richard III at the Lyceum; Irving injuries himself after the play and Lyceum closes until 25 January 1897

1897
1897–1898 – Theodore Roosevelt is Assistant Secretary of the US Navy

January 1897 – foundation of Dawson City by Joseph Ladue; the town was the centre of the Klondike Gold Rush

February 1897 – Lenin sentenced to 3 years exile in eastern Siberia

February 1897–February 1900 – Lenin in Siberia

18 May 1897 – Oscar Wilde released from prison

26 May 1897 – publication of Bram Stoker’s Dracula

5 April–8 May 1897 – the Greco-Turkish War of 1897 (or the Thirty Days’ War), a war between Greece and the Ottoman Empire, caused by the status of the Ottoman province of Crete; there was a decisive Ottoman military victory

16 April–May 1897 – Samuel Butler and Henry Festing Jones in Sicily; in Girgenti and Selinunte; they return via Casale, San Pietro, Bellinzona, Wassen

8 June 1897 – Edward Aveling secretly married the actress Eva Frye

14 June 1897 – death at sea of the gold mining magnate Barney Barnato (21 February 1851–14 June 1897), rival of Cecil Rhodes

22 June 1897 – Queen Victoria’s Diamond Jubilee procession

July 1897 – Keynes undergoes Eton College Scholarship Examinations

August 1897 – Bram Stoker takes a holiday in the village of Cruden Bay

after 22 August 1897 – Edward Aveling abandons Eleanor Marx, but returns some days later

c. September 1897 – Edward Aveling and Eleanor Marx travel to Paris to see Laura Marx

September 1897 – John Maynard Keynes began study at Eton; educated at Eton from 1897–1902

16 September 1897 – Winston Churchill present on a cavalry patrol in India which is ambushed in the Mamund Valley

25 September 1897 – Rudyard Kipling and his family move to Rottingdean, East Sussex

October 1897–May 1899 – Mark Twain lives in Europe, in England and Austria

November 1897 – Mark Twain’s Following the Equator: A Journey around the World is published

November 1897 – Samuel Butler published The Authoress of the Odyssey

December 1897 – Edward Aveling ill with the flu

15 December 1897 – Charles Paine Pauli dines at Clifford’s Inn with Samuel Butler for the last time

29 December 1897 – death of Charles Paine Pauli

1898
January 1898 – H. G. Wells’ The War of the Worlds first published; first published as a serial in Pearson’s Magazine April to December 1897

January 1898 – Edward Aveling asks Ellen Terry for a loan

1 January 1898 – opening night of Henry Irving’s production of Peter the Great at the Lyceum theatre

13 January 1898 – Émile Zola publishes an open letter to President Félix Faure in L’Aurore with the headline “J’Accuse ...!” on the Dreyfus Affair

9 February 1898 – Edward Aveling has surgery at University College Hospital

c. 18 February 1898 – Edward Aveling and Eleanor Marx travel to Margate

18 February 1898 – disastrous fire at the Lyceum storage area

27 March 1898 – Edward Aveling and Eleanor Marx return to their house in Sydenham

31 March 1898 – death of Eleanor Marx Aveling

2 April 1898 – inquest on the death of Eleanor Marx Aveling

5 April 1898 – funeral of Eleanor Marx Aveling

6 April–May 1898 – Samuel Butler and Henry Festing Jones in Sicily; they go to Basel, Casale-Monferrato, Varallo, Casale, Camino, Avvocato Negri, Florence, Naples, Salerno, Messina, Taormina, Trapani, Messina, Naples, Rome, Genoa, Turin, Casale-Monferrato, Basel

25 April–12 August 1898 – Spanish–American War

19 May 1898 – death of William Ewart Gladstone at Hawarden Castle, Hawarden, at the age of 88

June 1898 – Winston Churchill leaves India

July 1898 – Winston Churchill arrives in London from India

30 July 1898 – death of Otto von Bismarck

1898 – publication of Marx’s Value, Price and Profit (a series of lectures Marx delivered in 1865)

summer 1898 – Henry Irving begins his relationship with Elizabeth Aria

25 August 1898 – Turkish mob massacres hundreds of Cretan Greeks, the British Consul and 17 British soldiers; Turkish forces were expelled from the island by the Great Powers in November 1898

2 August 1898 – Winston Churchill arrives in Cairo

2 August 1898 – death of Edward Aveling

2 September 1898 – Battle of Omdurman, with Winston Churchill present in the army of Sir Herbert Kitchener

16–27 September 1898 – Samuel Butler goes to Amsterdam to a Rembrandt exhibition, Haarlem, the Hague

12 October 1898 – death of William J. M. Larnach in a committee room at the New Zealand Parliament

13 October 1898 – Henry Irving stricken at Glasgow with pleurisy and pneumonia while playing Madame Sans Gene

31 October 1898 – Herbert Kitchener made Baron Kitchener of Khartoum and Aspall in the County of Suffolk

November 1898 – Turkish forces expelled from Crete by the Great Powers in November 1898; an autonomous Cretan State established

10 December 1898 – the Treaty of Paris of 1898 between Spain and the US; the US gained Cuba, Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines; the Treaty became effective on 11 April 1899

1899
1899–1936 – Franz Boas is first Professor of Anthropology at Columbia University (he became professor emeritus in 1937)

1899 – the New Zealand government Immigration Restriction Act 1899 prohibited the entry of migrants lacking British or Irish heritage by means of an educational test (it became law in 1900)

1 January 1899–31 December 1900 – Theodore Roosevelt 33rd Governor of New York State

March–late May 1899 – Samuel Butler and Henry Festing Jones in Italy; they go to Basel, Lucerne, Fluelen, Casale-Monferrato, Varallo-Sesia, Genoa, Pisa, Siena, Florence, Forli, Ravenna, Padua, Venice, Verona, Bergamo, Milan, Turin, Sammichele, Mont Cenis, Paris

March 1899 – Winston Churchill departs India

18 May–29 July 1899 – Hague Convention of 1899

31 March 1899 – Henry Irving surrenders the lease of Lyceum theatre to a syndicate

October 1899–May 1900 – Henry Irving’s 6th American tour

11 October 1899–31 May 1902 – the Second Boer War between Britain and the Boer Republic of Transvaal and the Orange Free State:
October–December 1899 – the first Boer offensive phase of the Boer war
14 October 1899–15 February 1900 – siege of Kimberley, Cape Colony during the Second Boer War by the Orange Free State and the Transvaal
January–September 1900 – 2nd British offensive phase of the Boer war
September 1900 – May 1902 – the 3rd Guerrilla war phase of the Boer war
27 February 1902 – execution of Harry “Breaker” Harbord Morant and Peter Handcock in Pretoria
14 October 1899 – Winston Churchill leaves England for South Africa to report on the Anglo-Boer War as correspondent for the Morning Post

15 November–12 December 1899 – capture and imprisonment of Winston Churchill; imprisoned in a POW camp in Pretoria

December 1899 – Kitchener arrives in South Africa on the RMS Dunottar Castle

1900
20 January 1900 – death of John Ruskin

February 1900 – Samuel Butler and Henry Festing Jones in Harwich

23 March 1900–1903 – Arthur Evans’ excavations on Knossus

April–12 June 1900 – Samuel Butler meets Henry Festing Jones in Genoa; Butler goes to Basel, Genoa, Casale, Pisa, Rome, Segni, Salerno, Paestum, Reggio, Messina, Taormina, Siracusa (2 May 1900), Malta, Siracusa, Palermo, Calatafimi, Albergo Centrale, Trapani, Palermo, Naples, Rome (20 May), Siena, Sammichele, Casale-Monferrato, Basel, London (12 June)

4–6 July 1900 – US Democratic National Convention of 1900, held at Convention Hall in Kansas City, Missouri; William Jennings Bryan gave a speech called “Imperialism”

29 July 1900 – Lenin left Russia for Western Europe

25 August 1900 – death of Friedrich Nietzsche

September 1900 – Samuel Butler in Wassen

October 1900 – Mark Twain returns to America

October 1900 – Samuel Butler’s translation of the Odyssey published

November 1900–April 1901 – Samuel Butler writes Erewhon Revisited

22 November 1900 – death of Arthur Sullivan

30 November 1900 – death of Oscar Wilde

1901
1 January 1901 – proclamation of the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act (UK) in Centennial Park, Sydney:
5 July 1900 – the Commonwealth of Australia Constitution Act (UK) passed (given Royal Assent by Queen Victoria on 9 July 1900)
1 January 1901–24 September 1903 – Sir Edmund Barton (1849–1920) first Prime Minister of Australia (Protectionist Party)
29–30 March 1901 – first national elections in the Commonwealth of Australia after Federation
9 May 1901 – first Australian Parliament was opened in Melbourne by Prince George (King George V)
9 May 1901–9 May 1927 – the Parliament meets in Parliament House, Melbourne
17 November 1901 – the Pacific Island Labourers Act 1901 that allowed mass deportation of nearly all the Pacific Islanders (“Kanakas”) working in the Queensland sugar industry
23 December 1901 – the Immigration Restriction Act 1901 of the Parliament of Australia
24 September 1903–27 April 1904 – Alfred Deakin is Prime Minister (Protectionist Party)
12 March 1913 – Canberra officially named
9 May 1927 – Australian Commonwealth parliament moves to Canberra
22 January 1901 – death of Queen Victoria

22 January 1901–6 May 1910 – reign of Edward VII

March–September 1901 – Theodore Roosevelt is Vice President of the United States under William McKinley (president from 4 March 1897–14 September 1901)

April–24 June 1901 – Samuel Butler travels to Basel, Casale-Monferrato, Pisa (where he joins Henry Festing Jones in May), Rome, Naples, Palermo, Trapani, Palermo, Catania, Taormina, Aci Reale, Messina, Naples, Rome, Ancona, Pesaro, Rimini, Bologna, Parma, Piacenza, Casale-Monferrato, London

summer 1901 – Bram Stoker attends the Wagner Cycle at Bayreuth?

22 July 1901 – première of Richard Wagner’s play Der fliegende Holländer (The Flying Dutchman) at Bayreuth

August 1901–April 1902 – Arthur Conan Doyle’s novel The Hound of the Baskervilles serialised in The Strand Magazine

September 1901 – Samuel Butler in Basel and Wassen

14 September 1901–4 March 1909 – Theodore Roosevelt is 26th President of the United States

11 October 1901 – Samuel Butler publishes Erewhon Revisited

1902
28 March–19 May 1902 – Samuel Butler travels to Paris, Casale-Monferrato, Rome, Naples, Palermo (12 April), Naples (11 May), Calis, London (19 May)

April 1902–April 1903 – Lenin moved to London

18 June 1902 – death of Samuel Butler at a nursing home in St John’s Wood Road, London

21 June 1902 – Samuel Butler’s funeral near Woking; his ashes buried at Woking

19 July 1902 – Henry Irving’s farewell performance at the Lyceum

2 September 1902 – Rudyard Kipling and his family move to a home called Bateman’s, in Burwash, East Sussex, England

December 1902–7 November 1913 – Alfred Russel Wallace moves to a small house called the Old Orchard at Parkstone in Dorset

1903
1903 – the posthumous publication of Samuel Butler’s The Way of All Flesh

April 1903 – Lenin and his wife left London for Switzerland

30 April 1903 – début of Henry Irving’s production of Dante at the Theatre Royal

October 1903–March 1904 – Henry Irving’s 8th American tour

17 December 1903 – the first airplane flight near at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina of the Wright Flyer, the first powered, heavier-than-air machine, by the Wright brothers

1904
8–9 February 1904 – Japanese fleet under Admiral Tōgō Heihachirō attacks Russian fleet at Port Arthur, Korea

8 February 1904–5 September 1905 – Russo-Japanese War between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea; Russian defeat

8 November 1904 – United States presidential election of 1904; Theodore Roosevelt (who succeeded McKinley in September 1901) elected in his own right

winter 1904 – Henry Irving’s final provincial tour

1905
22 January 1905 – unarmed demonstrators in St Petersburg, Russia led by Father Georgy Gapon fired on by soldiers as they marched to the Winter Palace to present a petition to Tsar Nicholas II

22 January 1905–16 June 1907 – Russian Revolution of 1905

13 October 1905 – death of Sir Henry Irving

20 October 1905 – public funeral of Sir Henry Irving

1906
1906 – Bram Stoker suffers a stroke

1907
1907 – the 1907 New Zealand Chinese Immigrants Amendment Act

1907 – Bram Stoker moves to 4 Durham Place from 18 St Leonard’s Terrace

November 1906 – The Vicar of Wakefield opens at the Prince of Wales Theatre; Stoker is business manager

1908
9 June 1908 – King Edward VII of England meets Tsar Nicholas II of Russia on the Russian Imperial Yacht Standart in the Bay of Reval

July 1908 – the Young Turk Revolution of the Ottoman Empire; this restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and created multi-party politics in the Ottoman parliament

5 October 1908 – de jure independence of Bulgaria from the Ottoman Empire proclaimed in Tarnovo by Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria (who then took the title of “Tsar”)

6 October 1908 – Austria-Hungaria publishes the annexation of Bosnia Herzegovina proclamation

1909
1909 – Arthur Conan Doyle moves to Windlesham Manor, Crowborough, East Sussex

7–19 April 1909 – the Great Powers sign amendments to the Treaty of Berlin (of 1878) to settle the Bosnia Herzegovina crisis

24 June 1909 – Bram Stoker signs the contract for The Lady of the Shroud with William Heinemann

July 1909 – Bram Stoker published The Lady of the Shroud

1910
6 May 1910 – death of Edward VII

1911
1911 – Bram Stoker moves to No. 26 St George’s Square, Pimlico

3 March–12 June 1911 – Bram Stoker writes The Lair of the White Worm

November 1911 – Bram Stoker published The Lair of the White Worm

25 November 1911 – Laura Marx and her husband Paul Lafargue commit suicide

1912
14–15 April 1912 – night of the sinking of the RMS Titanic; Titanic sank at 2.20 am on 15 April

20 April 1912 – death of Bram Stoker at No. 26 St George’s Square, Pimlico, London

8 October 1912–30 May 1913 – First Balkan War between the Balkan League (Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece and Montenegro) and the Ottoman Empire

5 November 1912 – United States presidential election of 1912; the candidates were President William Howard Taft (Republican Party); Theodore Roosevelt (Progressive Party / “Bull Moose Party”); Woodrow Wilson (Democrat Party)

1913
29 June–10 August 1913 – Second Balkan War between Bulgaria and Serbia, Greece and Romania; it ends in defeat for Bulgaria

10 August 1913 – Treaty of Bucharest

1913–1914 – Roosevelt–Rondon-Cheerie-Jodi O’Rodio Scientific Expedition, led by Theodore Roosevelt and Cândido Rondon, to the Rio Roosevelt in a remote area of the Brazilian Amazon basin

1914
April 1914 – publication of the short story collection Dracula’s Guest; Florence moves to 4 Kinnerton Studios, Knightsbridge